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African Americans

breast-fed infants and vitamin D, 385, 494495

calcitriol levels, 260261, 296

“calcium economy,” 294, 517

cardiovascular mortality, 438

cognitive function, 186

diabetes, 153

limited data for DRI development, 347

multiple sclerosis, 174

puberty, 24

serum 25OHD levels

atherosclerotic plaque, 438, 444

bone health, 106, 208, 260261, 295, 298, 439, 493

effects of skin pigmentation, 374, 493, 494495

vitamin D dose–response, 431

systemic lupus erythematosus, 177

Africans, 179, 244.

See also Gambians;

Nigerians

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Methods Reference Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, 127, 128

overview of AHRQ-Ottawa and AHRQ-Tufts reports, 5, 3031, 9798, 100, 126127

Albumin. See Serum albumin

Alcohol consumption, 64, 140, 143, 230, 434

Allergies, 169, 496498

All-laboratory trimmed mean (ALTM), 109

Alopecia, 94

Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC), 147, 415, 436

Altitude, 105

Alzheimer’s disease, 183, 185

Amenorrhea, 502

American Academy of Dermatology, 495

American Academy of Pediatrics, 95, 258

American Dietetic Association, 497

American Indians, 197, 439

American Institute for Cancer Research, 415

Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, 274

Anemia, 176

Angiotensin II, 190

Ankylosis, 174

Anorexia, 406, 425

Anti-angiogenic action, 92, 146

Antibody-based assays, 107, 108, 109, 365

Anticonvulsants, 87, 504

Anti-inflammatory action, 92, 146, 184, 517

Antimicrobial activity, 177, 178, 179, 181

Antirachitic, 80

Apoptosis, 77, 92, 140, 143

Appetite loss, 171172

Arrhythmia, 147, 406, 425

Arsenic, 1114

Arthralgia, 176

Arthritis, 176.

See also Osteoarthritis;

Rheumatoid arthritis

Asian ancestry or Asians, 179, 199, 231, 252, 254, 268, 347, 439.

See also Chinese ancestry or Chinese;

East Asian ancestry;

South Asian ancestry or South Asians

Assay shift and drift, 107111, 365366, 460461

Asthma, 4, 129, 168170, 181, 182

Atherosclerosis, 147, 438, 444

Atmospheric conditions, 104, 105, 492

Autism, 4, 129, 182183

Autoimmune disease, 4, 5, 78, 91, 170177, 181182, 189, 192.

See also Crohn’s disease;

Diabetes (type 1);

Inflammatory bowel disease;

Multiple sclerosis;

Osteoarthritis;

Rheumatoid arthritis;

Systemic lupus erythematosus

B

B cells, 91, 170

Background intake. See Benchmark intake

Balance (calcium). See Calcium balance

Balance (physical), 166

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 187

Behavior, 182, 184, 186, 295

Benchmark intake (BI), 17, 418, 440, 519

Bioavailability, 29, 37, 39, 6263, 498, 503, 516, 521

Bioequivalence, 29, 516, 521

Biomarkers

for colon carcinogenesis, 144

of effect, 2526



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