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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

CHO (g/kg/d)

Protein (g/d)

Vit A (μg/d)a

Vit C (mg/d)

Vit D (μg/d)

Vit E (mg/d)b

Thiamin (mg/d)

Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)c

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6–12 mo

 

 

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

500

100

0.87

210

13

10

5

0.4

0.4

5

4–8 y

800

100

0.76

275

22

10

6

0.5

0.5

6

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,100

100

0.76

445

39

10

9

0.7

0.8

9

14–18 y

1,100

100

0.73

630

63

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

19–30 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

31–50 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

51–70 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

> 70 y

1,000

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,100

100

0.76

420

39

10

9

0.7

0.8

9

14–18 y

1,100

100

0.71

485

56

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

19–30 y

800

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

31–50 y

800

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

51–70 y

1,000

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

> 70 y

1,000

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,000

135

0.88

530

66

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

19–30 y

800

135

0.88

550

70

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

31–50 y

800

135

0.88

550

70

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,000

160

1.05

885

96

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

19–30 y

800

160

1.05

900

100

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

31–50 y

800

160

1.05

900

100

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

NOTE: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.



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