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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Total Watera (L/d)

Carbohydrate (g/d)

Total Fiber (g/d)

Fat (g/d)

Linoleic Acid (g/d)

α-Linolenic Acid (g/d)

Proteinb (g/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

0.7*

60*

ND

31*

4.4*

0.5*

9.1*

6–12 mo

0.8*

95*

ND

30*

4.6*

0.5*

11.0

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

1.3*

130

19*

NDc

7*

0.7*

13

4–8 y

1.7*

130

25*

ND

10*

0.9*

19

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

2.4*

130

31*

ND

12*

1.2*

34

14–18 y

3.3*

130

38*

ND

16*

1.6*

52

19–30 y

3.7*

130

38*

ND

17*

1.6*

56

31–50 y

3.7*

130

38*

ND

17*

1.6*

56

51–70 y

3.7*

130

30*

ND

14*

1.6*

56

> 70 y

3.7*

130

30*

ND

14*

1.6*

56

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

2.1*

130

26*

ND

10*

1.0*

34

14–18 y

2.3*

130

26*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

19–30 y

2.7*

130

25*

ND

12*

1.1*

46

31–50 y

2.7*

130

25*

ND

12*

1.1*

46

51–70 y

2.7*

130

21*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

> 70 y

2.7*

130

21*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

19–30 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

31–50 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

19–30 y

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

31–50 y

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

NOTE: This table (take from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AI) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aTotal water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water.

bBased on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight, e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight.

cNot determined.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.



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