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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)

Vitamin E (mg/d)b,c

Vitamin K

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

600

NDe

25

ND

ND

ND

ND

6–12 mo

600

ND

38

ND

ND

ND

ND

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1−3 y

600

400

63

200

ND

ND

ND

4−8 y

900

650

75

300

ND

ND

ND

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9−13 y

1,700

1,200

100

600

ND

ND

ND

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

51−70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

> 70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9−13 y

1,700

1,200

100

600

ND

ND

ND

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

51−70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

> 70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAs preformed vitamin A only.

bAs α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.



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