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FIGURE 1-1 The four generic steps of risk assessment.

FIGURE 1-1 The four generic steps of risk assessment.

SOURCE: Modified from WHO (2006).

quences or inconsistencies among the various DRI development activities. One example is the procedures used for extrapolation relative to EAR and UL values. Study committees would likely notice potential incompatibilities if the evaluations for both adequate and excess intakes were compared in a side-by-side risk assessment framework. Additionally, as the methodological challenges in the studies used to evaluate risks are likely to be associated with both inadequate and excess intakes, a consistent framework for analyzing both is logical (Taylor, 2008).

The steps associated with risk assessment, as applied in this report on vitamin D and calcium, are briefly described below.

Step 1:
“Hazard Identification” or Indicator Review and Selection

An initial starting point for this report—as for all deliberations based on risk assessment—is the identification and review of the potential indicators to be used in developing the DRIs. Based on this review, the indicators



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