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ULs for Pregnancy and Lactation

Pregnant or Lactating 14 Through 18 Years of Age

Pregnant or Lactating 19 Through 30 Years of Age

Pregnant or Lactating 31 Through 50 Years of Age


UL 4,000 IU (100 μg)/day Vitamin D

The available data do not indicate a basis for deriving a UL for pregnant and lactating women or adolescents that is different from those for their non-pregnant and non-lactating counterparts.


Adams, J. S. and G. Lee. 1997. Gains in bone mineral density with resolution of vitamin D intoxication. Annals of Internal Medicine 127(3): 203-6.

Aloia, J. F., M. Patel, R. Dimaano, M. Li-Ng, S. A. Talwar, M. Mikhail, S. Pollack and J. K. Yeh. 2008. Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87(6): 1952-8.

Ames, S. K., B. M. Gorham and S. A. Abrams. 1999. Effects of high compared with low calcium intake on calcium absorption and incorporation of iron by red blood cells in small children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70(1): 44-8.

Anthoni, S., E. Savilahti, H. Rautelin and K. L. Kolho. 2009. Milk protein IgG and IgA: the association with milk-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in adults. World Journal of Gastroenterology 15(39): 4915-8.

Asmus, H. G., J. Braun, R. Krause, R. Brunkhorst, H. Holzer, W. Schulz, H. H. Neumayer, P. Raggi and J. Bommer. 2005. Two year comparison of sevelamer and calcium carbonate effects on cardiovascular calcification and bone density. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 20(8): 1653-61.

Bailey, C. S., J. J. Weiner, O. M. Gibby and M. D. Penney. 2008. Excessive calcium ingestion leading to milk-alkali syndrome. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 45(Pt 5): 527-9.

Bajwa, G. S., L. M. Morrison and B. H. Ershoff. 1971. Induction of aortic and coronary atheroarteriosclerosis in rats fed a hypervitaminosis D, cholesterol-containing diet. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 138(3): 975-82.

Barger-Lux, M. J. and R. P. Heaney. 2002. Effects of above average summer sun exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium absorption. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87(11): 4952-6.

Baron, J. A., M. Beach, K. Wallace, M. V. Grau, R. S. Sandler, J. S. Mandel, D. Heber and E. R. Greenberg. 2005. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 14(3): 586-9.

Binkley, N., R. Novotny, D. Krueger, T. Kawahara, Y. G. Daida, G. Lensmeyer, B. W. Hollis and M. K. Drezner. 2007. Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92(6): 2130-5.

Blank, S., K. S. Scanlon, T. H. Sinks, S. Lett and H. Falk. 1995. An outbreak of hypervitaminosis D associated with the overfortification of milk from a home-delivery dairy. American Journal of Public Health 85(5): 656-9.

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