methodologies could be responsible for some of the difference, the surveys use very similar methodologies and work to ensure uniformity as much as possible. A more likely possibility is that the differences are attributable to food fortification practices. In Canada, calcium may only be added to a limited number of foods. Flour, cornmeal, plant-based beverages, and orange juice may be fortified with calcium, but not breakfast cereals and bread. However, discretionary fortification with calcium is widespread in the United States and can encompass breakfast cereals, breads, and an array of beverages.
At the time of this study, only intake data for foods were available for Canadians; estimates of total calcium intake (i.e., foods plus supplements)