. "Appendix C: Methods and Results from the AHRQ-Ottawa Evidence-Based Report on Effectiveness and Safety of Vitamin D in Relation to Bone Health." Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011.
The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes Calcium Vitamin D
Chapter 2. Methods
Key Questions Addressed in This Report
The University of Ottawa EPC’s evidence report on Vitamin D is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature. A technical expert panel was recruited to help refine key questions and provide expertise to the review team during the review process. The finalized questions were:
Are specific circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D associated with the following health outcomes in:
Children: rickets, bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mineral content (BMC), fractures, parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
Women of reproductive age (includes pregnant and lactating women): BMD, calcaneal ultrasound, fractures, calcium absorption, PTH?
Elderly men and postmenopausal women: BMD, fractures, falls?
Does dietary intake (fortified foods and/or vitamin D supplementation) or sun exposure affect circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D?
Does this vary with different age groups, ethnicity, use of sunscreen, geography and/or body mass index (BMI)?
What are the effects of fortified foods on circulating 25(OH)D concentrations?
What is the effect of sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation on levels of serum 25(OH)D?
What is the evidence regarding the effect of supplemental doses of vitamin D on bone mineral density, fractures and fall risk in:
Women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women?
Is there variation with baseline levels of 25(OH)D?
Is there a level of sunlight exposure (time of year, latitude, BMI, amount of skin exposed) that is sufficient to maintain adequate vitamin D levels, but does not increase the risk of melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer?
Does intake of vitamin D above current reference intakes lead to toxicities (e.g., hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, calcification of soft tissue or major organs, kidney stones)?