The University of Ottawa EPC’s evidence report on Vitamin D is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature. A technical expert panel was recruited to help refine key questions and provide expertise to the review team during the review process. The finalized questions were:
Are specific circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D associated with the following health outcomes in:
Children: rickets, bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mineral content (BMC), fractures, parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
Women of reproductive age (includes pregnant and lactating women): BMD, calcaneal ultrasound, fractures, calcium absorption, PTH?
Elderly men and postmenopausal women: BMD, fractures, falls?
Does dietary intake (fortified foods and/or vitamin D supplementation) or sun exposure affect circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D?
Does this vary with different age groups, ethnicity, use of sunscreen, geography and/or body mass index (BMI)?
What are the effects of fortified foods on circulating 25(OH)D concentrations?
What is the effect of sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation on levels of serum 25(OH)D?
What is the evidence regarding the effect of supplemental doses of vitamin D on bone mineral density, fractures and fall risk in:
Women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women?
Is there variation with baseline levels of 25(OH)D?
Is there a level of sunlight exposure (time of year, latitude, BMI, amount of skin exposed) that is sufficient to maintain adequate vitamin D levels, but does not increase the risk of melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer?
Does intake of vitamin D above current reference intakes lead to toxicities (e.g., hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, calcification of soft tissue or major organs, kidney stones)?