Riley, R. D., and E. W. Steyerberg. 2010. Meta-analysis of a binary outcome using individual participant data and aggregate data. Research Synthesis Methods 1(1):2–19.
Rothstein, H. R., A. J. Sutton, and M. Borenstein, editors. 2005. Publication bias in metaanalysis: Prevention, assessment and adjustments. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.
Salanti, G., V. Marinho, and J. Higgins. 2009. A case study of multiple-treatments meta-analysis demonstrates that covariates should be considered. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62(8):857–864.
Salanti, G., S. Dias, N. J. Welton, A. Ades, V. Golfinopoulos, M. Kyrgiou, D. Mauri, and J. P. A. Ioannidis. 2010. Evaluating novel agent effects in multiple-treatments meta-regression. Statistics in Medicine 29(23):2369–2383.
Salpeter, S., E. Greyber, G. Pasternak, and E. Salpeter. 2004. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic association with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4:CD002967.
Schmid, C. 2001. Using bayesian inference to perform meta-analysis. Evaluation & the Health Professions 24(2):165.
Schmid, C. H., P. C. Stark, J. A. Berlin, P. Landais, and J. Lau. 2004. Meta-regression detected associations between heterogeneous treatment effects and study-level, but not patient-level, factors. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 57(7):683–697.
Schriger, D. L., D. G. Altman, J. A. Vetter, T. Heafner, and D. Moher. 2010. Forest plots in reports of systematic reviews: A cross-sectional study reviewing current practice. International Journal of Epidemiology 39(2):421–429.
Schünemann, H., D. Best, G. Vist, and A. D. Oxman. 2003. Letters, numbers, symbols and words: How to communicate grades of evidence and recommendations. Canadian Medical Association Journal 169(7):677–680.
Schünemann, H., A. D. Oxman, G. Vist, J. Higgins, J. Deeks, P. Glasziou, and G. Guyatt. 2008. Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, edited by J. P. T. Higgins and S. Green. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Schünemann, H. J., J. Brożek, and A. D. Oxman. 2009. GRADE handbook for grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Version 3.2 [updated March 2009]. http://www.cc-ims.net/gradepro (accessed November 10, 2010).
SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network). 2009. SIGN 50: A guideline developer’s handbook. http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/50/index.html (accessed Februray 1, 2011).
Silagy, C.A., P. Middelton, and S. Hopewell. 2002. Publishing protocols of systematic reviews: Comparing what was done to what was planned. JAMA 287:2831–2834.
Simmonds, M., J. Higginsa, L. Stewartb, J. Tierneyb, M. Clarke, and S. Thompson. 2005. Meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials: A review of methods used in practice. Clinical Trials 2(3):209.
Slone Survey. 2006. Patterns of medication use in the United States, 2006: A report from the Slone Survey. http://www.bu.edu/slone/SloneSurvey/AnnualRpt/SloneSurveyWebReport2006.pdf (accessed February 1, 2011).
Smith, G., M. Egger, and A. Phillips. 1997. Meta-analysis: Beyond the grand mean? BMJ 315(7122):1610.
Smith, T., D. Spiegelhalter, and A. Thomas. 1995. Bayesian approaches to random-effects meta-analysis: A comparative study. Statistics in Medicine 14(24):2685–2699.
Song, F., S. Parekh-Bhurke, L. Hooper, Y. Loke, J. Ryder, A.J. Sutton, C.B. Hing, and I. Harvey. 2009. Extent of publication bias in different categories of research cohorts: a meta-analysis of empirical studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology 9:79.