TABLE 5-3 EPICOT Format for Formulating Future Research Recommendations

EPICOT Component

Issues to Consider


E Evidence

What is the current evidence?

One systematic review dominated by a large randomized controlled study conducted in hospital setting

P Population

Diagnosis, disease stage, comorbidity, risk factor, sex, age, ethnic group, specific inclusion or exclusion criteria, clinical setting

Primary care patients with confirmed stroke or transient ischemic attack (mean age ≥ 75 years, female–male ratio 1:1, time since last cerebrovascular event ≥ 1 year)

I Intervention

Type, frequency, dose, duration, prognostic factor

Intensive blood pressure lowering

C Comparison

Placebo, routine care, alternative treatment/management

No active treatment or placebo

O Outcomes

Which clinical or patient-related outcomes will the researcher need to measure, improve, influence, or accomplish? Which methods of measurement should be used?

Major vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death); adverse events, risk of discontinuation of treatment because of adverse events

T Time stamp

Date of literature search or recommendation

February 2006

SOURCE: Brown et al. (2006).

transparency and trustworthiness of the review. The ACA contains a similar requirement for authors of research funded by PCORI.7


The committee recommends one overarching standard for review by scientific peers, other users and stakeholders, and the public:

Standard 5.2—Peer review the draft report

Required elements:


Use a third party to manage the peer review process


The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at § 6301(h)(3)(B).

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