Checklist Item

Risk of bias in individual studies


Describe methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies (including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level), and how this information is to be used in any data synthesis.

Summary measures


State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means).

Synthesis of results


Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies, if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I2) for each meta-analysis.

Risk of bias across studies


Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies).

Additional analyses


Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were prespecified.




Study selection


Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram.

Study characteristics


For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations.

Risk of bias within studies


Present data on risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome-level assessment (see Item 12).

Results of individual studies


For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group; and (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot.

Synthesis of results


Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency.

Risk of bias across studies


Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies (see Item 15).

Additional analyses


Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see Item 16]).

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement