Selection/Topic

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Checklist Item

Risk of bias in individual studies

12

Describe methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies (including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level), and how this information is to be used in any data synthesis.

Summary measures

13

State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means).

Synthesis of results

14

Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies, if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I2) for each meta-analysis.

Risk of bias across studies

15

Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies).

Additional analyses

16

Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were prespecified.

RESULTS

 

 

Study selection

17

Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram.

Study characteristics

18

For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations.

Risk of bias within studies

19

Present data on risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome-level assessment (see Item 12).

Results of individual studies

20

For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group; and (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot.

Synthesis of results

21

Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency.

Risk of bias across studies

22

Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies (see Item 15).

Additional analyses

23

Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see Item 16]).



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