operations requires time, resources, a dedicated effort, and a mind-set different from that brought to the problem by the science community.

The survey committee concluded that a national, multifaceted program is needed to transition research to operations more effectively by fully leveraging labor from different agencies, universities, and industry and by avoiding duplication of effort. Such a program could coordinate the development of models across agencies, including advance planning for developing and coupling large-scale models. The survey committee further concluded that each operations agency should develop the appropriate processes and funding opportunities to facilitate model transition to operations, which must include validation and establishment of metrics and skill scores that reflect operational needs. To a large extent, the value of research and operational codes can be gauged by whether end-user needs are being met. The survey committee concluded that further efforts are needed to better identify what these needs currently are and to anticipate what they will be in the future.

It is also important for NOAA to maintain a level of research expertise needed to work together with its partners, to provide professional forecasts and products, to define requirements, to understand possibilities for supporting customer needs, and to make wise and cost-effective choices about new models and data to support space weather customers.

On a broader level, the survey committee concluded that distinct funding lines for basic space physics research and for space weather specification and forecasting need to be identified and/or developed. This will require maintaining and growing the research programs at NSF, NASA, AFOSR, and ONR, and it will provide a more effective transition from basic research to space weather forecasting applications.

Accordingly, the survey committee recommends:

•   [A2.4] NOAA should establish a space weather research program to effectively transition research to operations.

•   [A2.5] Distinct funding lines for basic space physics research and for space weather specification and forecasting should be developed and maintained.

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