F

Committee, Panels, and Staff Biographical Information

COMMITTEE

DANIEL N. BAKER, Chair, is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he also holds appointments as a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and as a professor of physics. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in planetary magnetospheres and in Earth’s vicinity. He conducts research in space instrument design, space physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. He currently is an investigator on several NASA space missions, including the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission, and the Canadian ORBITALS mission. Dr. Baker has published more than 700 papers in the refereed literature and has edited six books on topics in space physics. In 2010, Dr. Baker was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for leadership in studies, measurements, and predictive tools for Earth’s radiation environment and its impact on U.S. security. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Among his other awards are the 2007 University of Colorado’s Robert L. Stearns Award for outstanding research, service, and teaching; the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics’ (AIAA) James A. Van Allen Space Environments Award for excellence and leadership in space research; and his selection in 2004 as a national associate of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Baker served as president of the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of the AGU (2002-2004), and he currently serves on advisory panels of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). He served as chair of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events Workshop and as the co-chair of the Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions. He also served as a member of the Space Studies Board (SSB), the NRC’s 2003 decadal survey Committee on Solar and Space Physics: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, and the 2006 Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs.



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F Committee, Panels, and Staff Biographical Information COMMITTEE DANIEL N. BAKER, Chair, is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he also holds appointments as a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and as a professor of physics. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physi- cal and energetic particle phenomena in planetary magnetospheres and in Earth’s vicinity. He conducts research in space instrument design, space physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. He cur- rently is an investigator on several NASA space missions, including the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission, and the Canadian ORBIT- ALS mission. Dr. Baker has published more than 700 papers in the refereed literature and has edited six books on topics in space physics. In 2010, Dr. Baker was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for leadership in studies, measurements, and predictive tools for Earth’s radiation environment and its impact on U.S. security. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Among his other awards are the 2007 University of Colorado’s Robert L. Stearns Award for outstanding research, service, and teaching; the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics’ (AIAA) James A. Van Allen Space Environments Award for excellence and leadership in space research; and his selec- tion in 2004 as a national associate of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Baker served as president of the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of the AGU (2002-2004), and he currently serves on advisory panels of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). He served as chair of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events Workshop and as the co-chair of the Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions. He also served as a member of the Space Studies Board (SSB), the NRC’s 2003 decadal survey Committee on Solar and Space Physics: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, and the 2006 Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs. 380

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APPENDIX F 381 THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, Vice Chair, is a professor of space science and engineering in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences and the associate dean for entrepreneurship in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan, where he is leading the Solar and Heliospheric Research Group, which focuses on solar and space physics through novel experiments, data analysis, and theoretical meth- ods. This group has been actively involved in the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), WIND, Ulysses, MESSENGER, and Solar Orbiter. His research interests include instruments that measure the composition of plasmas in the heliosphere, new particle detection technologies suitable for future space missions, theo- retical concepts and experimental exploration methods of interaction between the heliosphere and local interstellar medium, and developing and analyzing space mission architectures for various exploration and commercial applications. Dr. Zurbuchen is a recipient of a Presidential Early Career for Scientists and Engineers Award. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Bern, Switzerland. Dr. Zurbuchen served on the NRC Panel on the Sun and Heliospheric Physics, the Plasma Science Committee, and the Workshop Organizing Committee on Solar Systems Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration. Dr. Zurbuchen served as vice chair of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. BRIAN J. ANDERSON is a physicist at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). Dr. Anderson has management experience with a number of missions, including serving as instru- ment scientist for the NEAR Magnetometer and for the MESSENGER Magnetometer, MESSENGER advance science planning lead/deputy project scientist, and SRP magnetic fields section supervisor. He has exten- sive experience in space magnetometry, spacecraft magnetics, and basic space plasma physics, with concentrations in pulsations, currents, wave-particle interactions, and geomagnetic storms. Dr. Anderson has conducted data analysis of AMPTE/CCE magnetic field data and data validation and was the archiving and data processing and analysis lead for UARS magnetic field data. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Minnesota. Dr. Anderson served on the NRC’s Panel on Solar Wind and Magnetospheric Interactions for the 2003 decadal survey. STEVEN J. BATTEL is president of Battel Engineering, providing engineering, development, and review services to NASA, the Department of Defense (DOD), and university and industrial clients. Prior to becom- ing president of Battel Engineering, he worked as an engineer, researcher, and manager at the University of Michigan, the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, University of California (UC) Berkeley, and the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. His areas of specialization include program man- agement, systems engineering, advanced technology development, spacecraft avionics, power systems, high-voltage systems, precision electronics, and scientific instrument design. Mr. Battel was a member of the Hubble Space Telescope External Readiness Review Team for SM-2, SM3A, and SM3B, the AXAF/ Chandra Independent Assessment Team, the TDRS-H/I/J Independent Review Team, the Mars Polar Lander Failure Review Board, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Genesis Failure Review Board. Mr. Battel received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan. He has extensive NRC member- ship service, including on the SSB, the Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010, the Committee on Earth Studies, and the Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope. JAMES F. DRAKE, JR., is a professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park. After completing his doctorate, Dr. Drake became a postdoctoral scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and then moved to the University of Maryland, first as a postdoctoral scholar and then as a member of the teaching faculty in the Department of Physics and the Institute for Physical Science and Technology. He has worked on a very broad range of topics in the general area of theoretical plasma physics, using both

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382 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY analytical and numerical techniques. His work has applications spanning a variety of physical systems, including the solar corona, Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere, magnetically confined plasma, and the interaction of intense lasers with plasma. His present focus is on magnetic reconnection with space physics applications and on turbulence and transport with applications to the magnetic fusion program. In recognition of his contributions to the field of plasma physics, he was made a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and was awarded a Humboldt Senior Scientist Research Award. Dr. Drake is also a national associate of the NAS. He received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from UCLA. Dr. Drake has served on numerous NRC studies and has been a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) and of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration for the 2003 Decadal Survey on Solar and Space Physics. LENNARD A. FISK is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. Dr. Fisk was previously the associate administrator for Space Science and Applications and chief scientist at NASA. He has served as a professor of physics and as vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. He is a member of the NAS. Dr. Fisk is a member of the board of directors of Orbital Sciences Corporation and co-founder of Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He received his Ph.D. in applied physics from the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Fisk was a member of the NRC Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. His prior service also includes chair of the SSB and membership on the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security, the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment, the Committee on International Space Programs, the Air Force Physics Research Committee, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. MARVIN A. GELLER is a professor of atmospheric sciences at the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sci- ences at Stony Brook University. His research deals with atmospheric dynamics, the middle and upper atmosphere, climate variability, and aeronomy. He became the fourth Stony Brook professor sharing the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for his participation in the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Dr. Geller received the congratulatory letter from the United Nations Environment Pro- gramme on January 22, 2008, for his contribution in the assessment of stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change that led to the Montreal Protocol. Dr. Geller has served on many national and international advisory committees on atmospheric science, the upper atmosphere, and near-space environment and is currently president of the Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP); he has served as co-chair of the World Climate Research Programme’s SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate) project, president of the AGU’s Atmospheric Sciences section, chair of NASULGC’s Board on the Oceans and Atmosphere, and president of ICSU’s SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). He is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the AGU and past president of the AGU’s Atmospheric Sciences Section. He earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has served on numerous NRC panels and committees, including the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (chair) and as a member of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC) and the Board on International Scientific Organizations. SARAH GIBSON is currently a scientist at the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Gibson’s positions prior to her arrival at HAO included a 1-year visit to Cambridge University in England as a NATO/NSF postdoctoral fellow and nearly 4 years at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—first as an NRC associate—as well as a research

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APPENDIX F 383 assistant professor at the Catholic University of America. Her primary interest is in the magnetic structure and dynamic evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and she uses theoretical CME models to explain a wide variety of space- and ground-based observations of CMEs from pre-eruption, through initiation and eruption, to their post-eruption state. A particular focus is observations and models of coronal prominence cavities, which represent dynamic equilibrium states that store magnetic energy, and Dr. Gibson leads an ISSI international working group to study coronal cavities. She is also a leader of the Whole Sun Month and Whole Heliosphere Interval international coordinated observing and modeling efforts to characterize the three-dimensional, interconnected solar-heliospheric-planetary system. Dr. Gibson was the recipient of the AAS-SPD 2005 Karen Harvey Prize. She obtained her Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado, Boulder. She is a scientific editor for the Astrophysical Journal and serves on the Heliophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, on the AURA Solar Observatory Council, and as a member of the ATST Science Working Group. She has served on the NRC’s Committee on Solar and Space Physics, the Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop, and the Astro2010 Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter from the Ground. MICHAEL HESSE is an astrophysicist and director of the Heliophysics Science Division at NASA GSFC. Dr. Hesse has also served as director of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center at the Laboratory for Solar and Space Physics, as acting branch head for the Geospace Physics Branch, and as the project scientist for theory and modeling for NASA’s Living With a Star Program. Prior to his work at GSFC, Dr. Hesse was a principal scientist at Hughes System Corporation and a postdoctoral researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). His professional interests include research into fundamental physical processes in space plasmas, particularly studies of magnetospheric, solar physical, and astrophysical problems. He has been a recipient of a NASA Group Achievement Award for the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and of eleven GSFC performance awards. He was a participant in the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Roadmap. Dr. Hesse earned his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany. He served on the NRC Panel on Solar Wind and Magnetospheric Interactions for the 2003 decadal survey. J. TODD HOEKSEMA is a senior research scientist in the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory at Stanford University. His professional experience includes research administration, system and scientific programming, and the design, construction, and operation of instruments to measure solar magnetic and velocity fields from both the ground and space. He is co-investigator and magnetic team lead for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the instrument scientist for the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory that was launched by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). He has been associated with the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford for three sunspot cycles. His primary scientific interests include the physics of the Sun and the interplanetary medium, solar-terrestrial relations, the large-scale solar and coronal magnetic fields, solar velocity fields and rotation, helioseismology, and education and public outreach. Dr. Hoeksema was chair of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and has served on the heliophysics subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee. He served for 4 years as a solar physics discipline scientist at NASA. Dr. Hoeksema led NASA’s 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap Team. He has been awarded the NASA distinguished public service medal and is a member of the AAS, AGU, International Astronomical Union (IAU), American Scientific Affiliation, and AAAS. He earned his Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. For several years, Dr. Hoeksema was the vice chair of Com- mission E.2 of the Committee on Space Research. He served on the NRC’s Astro2010 Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground.

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384 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY MARY K. HUDSON is the Eleanor and A. Kelvin Smith Distinguished Professor of Physics and served for 8 years as chair of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College. Dr. Hudson has served as one of the principal investigators with the NSF-funded Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), where researchers study the weather patterns that originate from a solar eruption, following the energy and mass transfer through the interplanetary medium, all the way to Earth’s ionosphere. Current areas of investiga- tion include the evolution of the radiation belts; how the ionized particle outflow known as the solar wind and the magnetic field of the Sun interact with the magnetic field of Earth, producing electrical currents in the ionosphere; and the effects of solar cosmic rays on radio communications near Earth’s poles. Dr. Hudson is also funded by NASA’s Supporting Research and Technology program, studying related effects of Earth’s space radiation environment that can affect both astronaut safety and satellite systems. Along with her students and postdoctoral research staff, she is modeling sudden changes in relativistic electron fluxes and solar cosmic rays at and inside the 24-hour orbital period of many communication and navigation satellites, and effects of global oscillations of Earth’s magnetic field, associated with changes in solar wind conditions that have their origins at the Sun. Dr. Hudson received her Ph.D. in physics from UCLA. She has served as chair of the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling program and is funded for research in that program on geomagnetic storms. Dr. Hudson was the vice chair of the NRC’s 2003 Panel on Atmosphere- Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions and a member of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Plasma Science Committee. DAVID L. HYSELL is a professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University. As a graduate student there, he worked as a postdoctoral researcher in space plasma physics. He has also worked at Clemson University as an associate professor in the physics department. Dr. Hysell’s research interests are in the area of upper atmospheric physics, space plasmas, and radar remote sensing. His research also focuses on theoretical and experimental investigations of space plasmas in Earth’s ionosphere between 80 and 1500 km altitude. Dr. Hysell has designed and built a number of small, portable coher- ent scatter radars for studying plasma instabilities and irregularities in Earth’s ionosphere at low, middle, and high latitudes. He uses these radars and radar interferometry and imaging techniques similar to those applied in radio astronomy and medicine, to observe the growth, propagation, and decay of ionospheric plasma irregularities in three spatial dimensions and in time. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Cor- nell University. His NRC committee experience includes serving on the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science. THOMAS J. IMMEL is an associate research physicist and senior fellow at the Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley. His expertise lies in interpretation of remote-sensing data and modeling of physical pro- cesses in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Dr. Immel’s work has included ultraviolet imaging obser- vations from four NASA missions: Dynamics Explorer, Polar, Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE), and Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED). His research efforts have extended out from the upper atmosphere and ionosphere to understand auroral and inner magnetospheric dynamical processes and have also focused on the upward coupling of energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere and the subsequent modification of conditions in the space envi- ronment. Dr. Immel received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. He served on the NASA 2009 Heliophysics Roadmap Team and is currently serving on the NSF CEDAR Science Steering Committee and the NASA Geospace Mission Operations Working Group. JUSTIN KASPER is an astrophysicist in the Solar and Stellar X-Ray Group in the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and is a lecturer in the Department of Astron-

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APPENDIX F 385 omy at Harvard University. He is also a visiting scholar at Boston University, Center for Space Physics. Dr. Kasper has worked on the development, construction, and analysis of instrumentation for the in situ and remote measurement of particles and fields, including space-based plasma probes and particle telescopes such as the Faraday Cups on Wind, and ground-based radio telescopes including the Mileura Wide-Field Array Low Frequency Demonstrator (MWA-LFD). Currently, he is leading the design and operation of the Faraday Rotation Subsystem for MWA-LFD and participating in the radio transients, sky survey, and ionospheric calibration efforts. Dr. Kasper studies the flow of energy in astrophysical plasmas, including the solar corona, the solar wind, and planetary magnetospheres. His research focuses on the role of non- thermal velocity distribution functions, plasma micro-instabilities, magnetic reconnection, turbulence, and dissipation in the physical processes of heating, bulk acceleration, collisionless shocks, energetic particle acceleration, and radio emission. Dr. Kasper received his Ph.D. in physics from MIT. He was a member of the U.S. organizing and instrumentation committees for the 2007 International Heliophysical Year and the project scientist for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. JUDITH L. LEAN is a senior scientist for Sun-Earth system research in the Space Science Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). After completing her Ph.D. she worked at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, from 1980 to 1986, joining NRL in 1988. Dr. Lean is the recipient of a number of NASA research grants, in collaboration with other SSDs and U.S scientists, and is currently a co-investigator on the SORCE, TIMED/SEE, SDO/EVE, and GLORY/ TIM space missions. The focus of her research is to understand the Sun’s variability using measurements and models, and to determine the impact of this variability on the Earth system, including climate change, the ozone layer, and space weather. Dr. Lean has published more than 100 papers in journals and books and delivered over 250 presentations documenting her research. She is a member of the AGU, AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD), and AMS International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. Dr. Lean was elected a fellow of the AGU in 2002 and a member of NAS in 2003. She has a Ph.D. in atmospheric physics from the University of Adelaide, Australia. Dr. Lean has served on a variety of NASA, NSF, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) advisory committees. Her prior NRC service includes serving as a member of the Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft and as a member of BASC. RAMON E. LOPEZ is a professor of physics at the University of Texas, Arlington. He is the co-director for diversity of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, a science and technology center funded by NSF. His current research focuses on solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, magnetospheric storms and substorms, and space weather prediction. Dr. Lopez is also active in education research involving student perception and interpretation of images and visualizations. He is a fellow of the APS and was awarded the Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service. Dr. Lopez received his Ph.D. in space physics from Rice University. In 2003, he was elected vice chair of the APS Forum on Education and served as chair in 2005. Dr. Lopez has also served on various education-related committees of the AGU and as a member of the board of directors of the Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Latinos and Native Americans in Science. His previous NRC service includes membership on the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, the Committee on Strategic Guidance for NSF’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences, the Committee on Undergraduate Science Education, and the Steering Committee on Criteria and Benchmarks for Increased Learning in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).

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386 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY HOWARD J. SINGER is chief scientist at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. Previously, he served as the chief of the research and development division of the Space Environment Center (SEC) and as the project leader for the current and future NOAA Space Environment Monitor instruments on the GOES spacecraft and the responsible scientist for the GOES spacecraft magnetometers. Prior to joining SEC, Dr. Singer was with the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, where he was the principal experimenter for the fluxgate magnetometer on the joint USAF-NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects satellite. His research is in the area of solar-terrestrial interactions, ultralow-frequency waves, geomagnetic disturbances, storms, and substorms. He has received awards from the Air Force, NASA, and NOAA, including the prestigious Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Leadership, and he is the recipient of the Antarctica Service Medal for spending more than 1 year at South Pole Station, Antarctica, where a geographic feature is named for him. Dr. Singer received his Ph.D. in space physics and geophysics from UCLA. He is cur- rently on the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling Steering Committee and is Editor’s Choice Editor of Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Applications. Dr. Singer has served on various NASA and NSF committees, including service on the NASA Living with a Star Geospace Mission Definition Team. He served on the NRC’s 2003 Solar and Space Physics Survey Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere- Magnetosphere Interactions and on the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. HARLAN E. SPENCE is a professor of physics and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Prior to that, Dr. Spence was a professor and department chair of the Department of Astronomy and a member of the Center for Space Physics at Boston University. He has also served as a senior member of the technical staff at the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Spence’s research interests include theoretical and experimental space plasma physics, cosmic rays and radiation belt processes, and the physics of the heliosphere, planetary magnetospheres, and the aurora. He received his Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from UCLA. Dr. Spence has served on multiple NASA and NSF advisory panels, including the NASA Living with a Star Management Operations Working Group and the NASA Earth-Sun System Subcommittee. He previously served on the NRC’s Panel on Solar Wind and Mag- netospheric Interactions, Panel on Space Sciences, and Committee on Solar and Space Physics. EDWARD C. STONE is the David Morrisroe Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and vice provost for special projects. He is a former director of JPL. Dr. Stone served as the chair of Caltech’s Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy and oversaw the development of the Keck Observatory as vice president for astronomical facilities and chairman of the California Association for Research in Astronomy. Since 1972, Dr. Stone has been the project scientist for the Voyager mission at JPL, coordinating the scientific study of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and Voyager’s continuing explora- tion of the outer heliosphere and search for the edge of interstellar space. Following his first instrument on a Discoverer satellite in 1961, Dr. Stone has been a principal investigator on nine NASA spacecraft and a co-investigator on five other NASA missions for which he developed instruments for studying galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and planetary magnetospheres. Dr. Stone is a member of the NAS and the American Philosophical Society, president of the IAA, and a vice president of COSPAR. Among his awards and honors, he has received the National Medal of Science from President Bush, the Magel- lanic Premium from the American Philosophical Society, and Distinguished Service Medals from NASA. In 1996, an asteroid (5841) was named after him. Dr. Stone received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. He has served on the NRC Planning Committee for a Workshop on “Sharing the Adventure with the Public”—Communicating the Value and Excitement of “Grand Questions” in Space Science and Exploration, the Committee on the Scientific Context for Space Exploration, and the SSB.

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APPENDIX F 387 PANEL ON ATMOSPHERE-IONOSPHERE-MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTIONS JEFFREY M. FORBES, Chair, is a professor and the Glenn Murphy Endowed Chair of the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research interests include the upper-atmosphere environments of Earth, Mars, and other planets and the coupling of these environ- ments to lower altitudes and to solar variability; geomagnetic storm effects on satellite drag variability; the vertical propagation of tides and planetary waves in planetary atmospheres and their electrodynamic and chemical effects; utilization of accelerometer, satellite drag, and satellite remote sensing data to elucidate atmospheric variability; and testing, validating and developing upper-atmosphere models. He also con- ducts numerical simulations of the above phenomena. Dr. Forbes is also the principal investigator of the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative on Atmospheric Density Prediction of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the chair of the Academic Affairs Committee for the AIAA. He is a fellow of the AGU and an associate fellow of the AIAA and received the 2010 AIAA Robert M. Losey Atmospheric Sciences Award. Dr. Forbes received his Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard University. His previous NRC service includes the Committee for the Study “Review of the Next Decadal Mars Architecture,” the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. JAMES H. CLEMMONS, Vice Chair, is the principal director of the Space Science Applications Labora- tory at the Aerospace Corporation. In his 13 years at Aerospace, Dr. Clemmons has led development of approximately 20 scientific instruments, flown on sounding rockets and satellites, to investigate a variety of phenomena in Earth’s magnetosphere as well as its ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere system. Before joining Aerospace, he worked at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics on related research. Dr. Clemmons is the author of numerous publications, including studies of observations conducted with the Freja satellite and other missions characterizing electric, magnetic, and plasma phenomena in the space environment. He is a member of the AGU, APS, and the American Chemical Society. Dr. Clemmons has participated in several NASA advisory groups and is the recipient of several awards by NASA and the Aerospace Corporation. He was a Fulbright Scholar and a resident associate of the NRC. Dr. Clemmons received B.S. degrees in physics and chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from UC Berkeley. ODILE de la BEAUJARDIERE is the principal investigator of the Communication/Navigation Outage Fore- casting System at the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Space Vehicles Directorate. She previously worked at SRI International. Dr. de la Beaujardiere was a member of the NSF Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Science Steering Committee. She previously served as a member of the NRC Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. JOHN V. EVANS is a retired chief technical officer of COMSAT Corporation, a position he took after serving as president and director of COMSAT Laboratories, the largest research center devoted entirely to satellite communications research. Prior to joining COMSAT, Dr. Evans was assistant director of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. His current technical interest lies in satellite communications technology, including both space and ground segments. Dr. Evans is the co-editor of Radar Astronomy and has published more than 100 papers on the topics of radar reflection and high-power radar studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. He is a member of the IAU, AGU, and AIAA. Dr. Evans is a fellow of the Institute of Electri- cal and Electronics Engineers and a member of the NAE. In 1975, he was awarded the Appleton Prize by the Council of the Royal Society of London for his contributions to ionospheric physics. Dr. Evans earned

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388 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY his Ph.D. in physics from Manchester University. He served as chair on the NRC Committee on Solar- Terrestrial Research and was a member of the Committee on Earth Studies and the Panel for Electronics and Electrical Engineering. RODERICK A. HEELIS is the Cecil and Ida Green Honors Professor of Physics and director of the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas, Dallas. His research specialization covers planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres, and the physical phenomena coupling these regions. Dr. Heelis has published more than 130 papers in the refereed literature and presented numerous invited papers at national and international meetings. He serves as principal investigator for grant and contract research sponsored by DOD and NSF. Dr. Heelis graduated from the University of Sheffield with a Ph.D. in applied and computational mathematics. In addition to his research activities, he also serves on a number of advisory committees and working groups, including being a member of the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Advisory subcommittee. Dr. Heelis was a co-chair on the NRC Committee on Heliophysics Performance Assessment and served as a member of the Committee on the Assessment of the Role of Solar and Space Physics in NASA’s Space Exploration Initiative. THOMAS J. IMMEL, see committee entry above. JANET U. KOZYRA is the George R. Carignan Collegiate Research Professor at the Space Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Michigan. She has also served as a summer faculty member at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory at the Hanscom Air Force Base in Massachusetts. Dr. Kozyra is active in space plasma physics and aeronomy, concentrating on processes that couple the atmosphere and iono- sphere with near-Earth space. Her research emphasis has been on the development of theoretical models of geophysical regions and the comparison of model results with satellite observations. Dr. Kozyra was the first demonstrator of the importance of high-energy oxygen ions in producing stable auroral red arcs through collisions with thermal electrons at high altitudes. She is currently a co-investigator on the TIDE instrument onboard the POLAR spacecraft and has also been selected as an interdisciplinary scientist on the proposed TIMED mission. Dr. Kozyra is an elected fellow of the AGU and is a former associate edi- tor for the Journal of Geophysical Research and Geophysical Research Letters. She received her Ph.D. in space physics and aeronomy from the University of Michigan. She served as a member of the NRC AFOSR Atmospheric Sciences Review Panel. WILLIAM LOTKO is a professor of engineering at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. He has also held the positions of interim dean and senior associate dean of the Thayer School. Before moving to Dartmouth, he was a research physicist at the Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley. Dr. Lotko is currently investigating and developing simulation models for ionospheric outflows into the mag- netosphere, electron precipitation into the high-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, plasma kinetics that enable superfluent ion outflows and electron precipitation, and the effects of all of these processes on global geospace dynamics. He is the principal investigator for Dartmouth’s Heliophysics Theory Project sponsored by NASA, co-investigator for the NSF-sponsored Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, and team leader for one of NASA’s Living With a Star projects that focuses on geospace dynamics dur- ing storms. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics and is an elected fellow of the AGU. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from UCLA. Dr. Lotko served on the NRC Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration.

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APPENDIX F 389 GANG LU is a senior scientist in the Terrestrial Impacts of Solar Output section of the HAO at NCAR. Her primary research covers high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere- thermosphere coupling, and space weather. She is the associate editor for JGR, was elected as the secretary for the aeronomy section of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA) section, and was awarded editor citation for excellence in refereeing for JGR-Space Physics. Dr. Lu received her Ph.D. in space physics from Rice University. She serves as the scientific discipline representative to SCOSTEP. Dr. Lu is a member of NSF’s Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Steering Committee and a member of the Auroral Plasma Physics Working Group at the International Space Science Institute. Her NRC experience includes service on the Committee on the Assessment of the Role of Solar and Space Physics in NASA’s Space Exploration Initiative and the Committee on Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere: A Workshop. KRISTINA A. LYNCH is an associate professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College. Prior to arriving at Dartmouth, Dr. Lynch was a research assistant professor at the University of New Hampshire. Her research revolves around auroral space plasma physics; ionospheric and mesospheric sounding rocket experiments, instrumentation, and data analysis; and wave-particle interactions in the auroral ionosphere. She has a Ph.D. in physics from the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Lynch was a member of the Com- mittee on Plasma 2010: An Assessment of and Outlook for Plasma and Fusion Science. JENS OBERHEIDE is an associate professor of physics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. Previously, he was an associate professor in atmospheric physics at the University of Wuppertal, Germany. Dr. Oberheide is a specialist in satellite data analysis and conducts empirical modeling of global-scale wave dynamics in Earth’s upper atmosphere. His research interests include the dynamics of Earth’s mesosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere system; the forcing and vertical propagation of tides, planetary waves, and gravity waves, including their effects on chemistry and electrodynamics; geospace environment coupling to the atmosphere below and to solar activity; and utilization of satel- lite and ground-based remote sensing data to resolve variability and vertical coupling processes in the atmosphere. Dr. Oberheide is a recipient of the NASA Group Achievement Award to the TIMED team. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Wuppertal. He served on the NASA Senior Review panel of the 2009-2012 Mission Operations and Data Analysis Program for the Heliophysics Operating Missions. Currently, Dr. Oberheide serves on the Steering Committee of SCOSTEP’s Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System program and leads one of its working groups, investigating the geospace response to variable waves from the lower atmosphere. LARRY J. PAXTON is a staff scientist and head of the Atmospheric and Ionospheric Remote Sensing Group at JHU/APL. He is the co-principal investigator for the global ultraviolet imager on NASA’s TIMED and the principal investigator on the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program’s (DMSP) special sensor ultra- violet spectrographic imager (SSUSI). His research focuses on the atmospheres and the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets, in particular the aeronomy of Earth’s upper atmosphere and the role of solar cycle and anthropogenic change in creating variability in the dynamics, energetics, and composition of the upper atmosphere. Dr. Paxton was APL’s chief scientist for the Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrograph Imagers (UVISI) on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). He has been involved in more than a dozen satellite, shuttle, and sounding rocket experiments. Dr. Paxton has published nearly 200 papers on plan- etary and space science, instruments, remote sensing techniques, and space mission design. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical, planetary, and atmospheric sciences from the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has served on several NASA and NSF committees, panels, and working groups and currently chairs the

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390 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY International Academy of Astronautics Commission 4 on Space Systems Utilization and Operations. He was a member of the NRC Committee on the Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate. ROBERT F. PFAFF is a space scientist in the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA’s GSFC. Prior to arriving at Goddard, he was a research support specialist at Cornell University’s School of Electrical Engineering. He is the principal investigator for the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting Sys- tem (C/NOFS) Vector Electric Field Instrument and co-investigator for the San Marco Satellite Electric Field Experiment, the Polar Electric Field Investigation, and the Cluster Electric Field Investigation. In addition to these projects, Dr. Pfaff is also either principal or co-investigator of numerous sounding rockets. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University. JOSHUA SEMETER is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and director of the Center for Space Physics at Boston University. He was previously a senior research engineer at SRI and a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. His research interests revolve around ionospheric and space plasma physics, spectroscopy of atmospheric airglow and the aurora borea- lis, image processing, and radar systems and radar signal processing. Dr. Semeter was associate editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research from 2004 to 2006. He won the 2009 Boston University Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Teaching Award and the 2006 NSF CAREER Award. Dr. Semeter graduated from Boston University with a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. JEFFREY P. THAYER is an associate professor of remote sensing in Earth and space science in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he has led the design, manufacturing, and testing of lidar systems for lower- and upper-atmosphere research with deployments in remote locations, such as Greenland. He was director of the NSF Sondrestrom Upper Atmosphere Research Facility in Greenland and performed experiments using incoherent scatter radar. His research interests include remote sensing instrumentation for atmospheric and space science, optical engineering for lidar system design and deployment, geophysical fluid dynamics, ionospheric electrodynamics, and thermosphere dynamics and composition. Dr. Thayer is a recipient of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) Presidential Achievement Award and the University of Michigan Alumni Merit Award. He earned his Ph.D. in atmospheric and space physics from the University of Michigan. Dr. Thayer served as chair of the NSF Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) program for the past 3 years. He has also served on the NASA Geospace Mission and Operations Working Group, the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap Team, the NASA Science and Technology Definition Team for the Solar-Terrestrial Probe Geospace Electrodynamics Connections Mission, and the NSF CEDAR Science Steering Committee. PANEL ON SOLAR WIND-MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTIONS MICHELLE F. THOMSEN, Chair, is a fellow of LANL. Having worked as a staff scientist from 1981 until her retirement in 2009, Dr. Thomsen now works on contract with the laboratory. Her primary research activities have involved the analysis and interpretation of spacecraft data, especially plasma data from the ISEE satellites, the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn, and the Los Alamos geosynchronous satellites. Previously, she served as the principal investigator for the plasma instruments on the geosynchronous satellites, as well as the chief scientist for space environment in the LANL High Altitude Space Monitoring program. Dr. Thomsen has also served as the acting director of the LANL Center for Space Science and Exploration. In addition, she served for 2 weeks as a Regents Lecturer at UCLA. Dr. Thomsen is the author or co-author of over 360 publications. She has received an outstanding alumni award from the University of Iowa and

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APPENDIX F 391 an honorary doctorate in science from Colorado College, and has been elected a fellow of the AGU. Dr. Thomsen received her Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa. She has served on a number of committees and advisory and review panels for NASA, NSF, and the AGU. Dr. Thomsen served a term as secretary for AGU’s Space Physics and Aeronomy Section (magnetosphere), has twice served as associate editor for Geophysical Research Letters, and is currently on the editorial board of Space Science Reviews. She is a member of NASA’s Heliophysics Advisory Subcommittee. Dr. Thomsen served a term as chair of NASA’s former Earth-Sun Systems Subcommittee. She has served on the NRC’s Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the 2003 Panel on Solar Wind and Magnetospheric Interactions. MICHAEL WILTBERGER, Vice Chair, is a scientist at NCAR in the Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory of the High Altitude Laboratory. A component of his work involves modeling of ionospheric outflows with data from the Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Experiment (SEE) on the NASA TIMED satellite used as input to the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) for a simulation spanning the declining phase of solar cycle 23 from 2001 to 2007. Model simulations of the neutral ther- mospheric density at ~400 km were compared with density measurements obtained from observations of the atmospheric drag on five spherical satellites in low Earth orbit. Previously, Dr. Wiltberger served as a research assistant professor in the Department of Astronomy at Dartmouth College. He has been published in multiple scientific journals. NASA awarded him the group achievement award and the AGU awarded him an outstanding student paper award in 1998. Dr. Wiltberger earned his B.S. in physics from Clarkson University and his M.S. in physics and his Ph.D. in space plasma physics from the University of Maryland. JOSEPH BOROVSKY is a scientist with the Space Science and Applications Group of LANL. A 19-year veteran of LANL, he works primarily on NASA-funded research in space physics, plasma physics, and surface physics. He served as a guest investigator at the Max Planck Institute for Aeronautics in Germany. His recent efforts have been focused on turbulence, the aurora, and Earth’s magnetosphere. Dr. Borovsky has contributed to numerous articles and professional journals. He is a member of and past editor for the AGU. Dr. Borovsky earned his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. JOSEPH F. FENNELL is a distinguished scientist in the Space Science Applications Laboratory of the Physical Sciences Laboratory at the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Fennell has been heavily involved in the development, fabrication, testing, and flight of many different particle instruments. These have covered the range from auroral and magnetospheric plasma instruments to medium- and high-energy electron and ion sensors. The most recent instrumentation efforts have been with the energetic particles and energetic ion composition measurements on the SCATHA, VIKING, CRRES, POLAR, Cluster II, Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP), and operational Department of Defense satellites. His professional activity has included stud- ies of artificially injected and natural geomagnetically trapped particles, solar cosmic rays, particle access to the magnetosphere, particle transport within the magnetosphere, energetic particle composition, ring current development, space radiation effects, and spacecraft charging and the impact the charging has on satellite systems. Recent studies have included observations of radiation belt particle transport and losses; studies of magnetic storm and substorm processes; high-altitude plasma sheet, cusp, plasma mantle, and ring current composition studies; and studies of the plasma sheet boundary. He is a fellow of the AGU and received the Aerospace Presidents Award for his work in satellite charging and its effects. Dr. Fennell earned his Ph.D. in physics from Saint Louis University, Missouri. He has served on the NRC Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, the Panel on Solar Wind and Magnetosphere Interactions for the 2003 solar and space physics decadal survey, and on the Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events Workshop.

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392 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY JERRY GOLDSTEIN is a staff scientist at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). Dr. Goldstein specializes in the study of the inner magnetospheres of Earth and Saturn. His primary research involves data analysis and modeling of data from the IMAGE mission, the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission, and the Cassini mission. Dr. Goldstein teaches graduate-level courses at UTSA and is the Science Operations Center lead for TWINS. He has authored or co-authored dozens of articles and has been cited hundreds of times in multiple journals. Dr. Goldstein is a fellow of the AGU and recipient of the 2006 Macelwane Medal in recognition of his plasmaspheric research. In 2006, Popular Science Magazine named him one of its annual “Brilliant 10” young scientists, and the San Antonio Business Journal included him in its “Forty Under 40.” In 2009, Dr. Goldstein received the Young Alumnus Award from Brooklyn College. He earned his Ph.D. in space physics from Dartmouth College. JANET C. GREEN is a physicist at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. She acts as the instrument scientist for the particle detectors on the NOAA GOES and POES satellites. Her main area of expertise is the physics of Earth’s radiation belts and their effects on satellite electronics and performance. Dr. Green guides the design and implementation of new NOAA particle instruments, monitors current data and instru- ment performance, and transitions into operations new algorithms and products that rely on the data. She also collaborates with the research community to improve understanding and modeling of Earth’s radia- tion belts and works with the user community to understand and mitigate satellite anomalies. Dr. Green received her Ph.D. from UCLA. DONALD A. GURNETT is a professor at the University of Iowa. His primary research interests are in the area of magnetospheric radio and plasma wave research, and he has more than 450 scientific publications. Dr. Gurnett has participated in more than 25 spacecraft projects, including Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, and Cassini. He is a member of the NAS and a fellow of the AAAS. Among his numerous research awards are the John Howard Dellinger Gold Medal from the International Scientific Radio Union, the John Adam Fleming Medal from the AGU, the Excellence in Plasma Physics Award from APS, and the Hannes Alfven Medal from the European Geosciences Union. He has also received several teaching awards, including the Iowa Board of Regents award for faculty excellence. Dr. Gurnett received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa. He served on the NRC Panel on Space Sciences and the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. LYNN M. KISTLER is a professor of physics in the Department of Physics and in the Space Science Center at the University of New Hampshire. Her major research interests are in the impact of heavy ions on dynam- ics of the magnetosphere, particularly the ring current and the magnetotail. Dr. Kistler is also interested in space instrumentation to measure ion composition and has been involved in developing instruments for the CLUSTER, FAST, Equator-S, ACE, and STEREO missions. She earned her Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland, College Park. She was involved in the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap Committee in 1999, the NASA Heliophysics Lunar Science Subpanel in 2006, and the NASA Heliospheric Mission Planning Working Group (Roadmap) in 2008. Dr. Kistler was the AGU Space Physics and Aeron- omy-Magnetospheric Physics Secretary from 2008 to 2010. MICHAEL W. LIEMOHN is an associate professor of space science and engineering in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan, where he has led the devel- opment of several numerical models for energetic particle transport and the use of these models for the interpretation of ground-based and spacecraft measurements. His current research activities include inves-

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APPENDIX F 393 tigations of the storm-time inner magnetosphere (electrons, ring current, and plasmasphere) and under- standing both the large-scale and small-scale processes of relevance, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ionospheric conductance influences, and magnetospheric plasma sources. He is also involved in data analysis and modeling of energetic electrons and ions around Mars, especially using the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express data sets. Dr. Liemohn completed an NRC-sponsored postdoctoral position at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) before returning to the University of Michigan in 1998. He earned his Ph.D. in atmospheric and space science from the University of Michigan. Dr. Liemohn has served as chair of the NASA Geospace Management and Operations Working Group and chair of the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling steering committee, and he has served on various other NASA, NSF, and LANL advisory committees. ROBYN MILLAN is an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College. Her research includes the use of high-altitude scientific balloon experiments to study Earth’s radiation belts, specifically the loss of relativistic electrons from the outer radiation belts into Earth’s atmosphere. Dr. Millan is principal investigator for the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) project, which is being planned for flight in association with the RBSP mission. Her prior positions include research appointments at Dartmouth and at UC Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. in physics at UC Berkeley in 2002. Dr. Millan served on the NRC Committee on the Role and Scope of Mission-Enabling Activities in NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions. DONALD G. MITCHELL is the Cassini spacecraft instrument scientist and IBEX co-investigator at JHU/ APL. Dr. Mitchell has been with JHU/APL since 1976. He was the lead investigator for the High Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) imager for the IMAGE mission. Dr. Mitchell is currently the instrumentation scientist for the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument for the Cassini Saturn mission and the Radiation Belt Science of Protons and Ion Composition Experiment. He has many publications in Earth magnetospheric, solar wind, and outer-planets magnetospheric physics. Dr. Mitchell is a member of the AGU, AAAS, and IAA. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of New Hampshire in 1975. Dr. Mitchell has served on the NRC Committee on International Space Programs and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. TAI D. PHAN is a senior fellow at the Space Sciences Laboratory of UC Berkeley. He has worked as a visiting postdoctoral scientist with the Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik in Germany and as a research associate for the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics at the National Research Council in Canada. Dr. Phan is a co-investigator of NASA’s Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission to study the cause of magnetospheric substorms. He leads an interdisciplinary science team of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission to study the microphysics of magnetic reconnection. His research interests include solar wind interaction with Earth’s magnetosphere, and magnetic reconnection in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere. He earned his Ph.D. in engineering from Dartmouth College. MICHAEL SHAY is an associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Delaware. Dr. Shay studies plasma physics using analytical theory and massively parallel computer simulations. He has extensively studied one multiscale process called magnetic reconnection, in which a large amount of magnetic energy is explosively released in the form of energetic particle acceleration, heating, and plasma flows. Dr. Shay is also studying novel simulation techniques that may provide a means to directly simulate multiscale phenomena. He has received a Faculty Early Career Development Award from NSF. Dr. Shay earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland.

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394 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY HARLAN E. SPENCE, see committee entry above. RICHARD M. THORNE is a professor of atmospheric physics in the Department of Atmospheric and Oce- anic Sciences at UCLA. He was a member of the Galileo Energetic Particle Detector team and chair of the GEM working group on energetic electron variability. He is currently chair of the GEM focus group on diffuse auroral precipitation, co-investigator and chair of the Radiation Working Group on the NASA New Frontiers JUNO mission, and co-investigator and lead theorist on the NASA Living With a Star RBSP-ECT and EMFISIS teams. His principal research involves theoretical studies of the interactions between waves and particles in geophysical plasmas, including the origin of many different classes of plasma waves found in the highly tenuous solar system plasmas, the role of wave-particle scattering on the dynamics of the energetic radiation belts, and the effects of particle precipitation on the upper atmosphere. Dr. Thorne is a fellow of the AGU. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from MIT. Dr. Thorne has served on numerous NASA panels, including the Geosciences Mission Definition Team for NASA’s Living With a Star Program, the CASSINI Extended Mission Senior Review Board, and the JUNO project Radiation Advisory Board. PANEL ON SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS RICHARD A. MEWALDT, Chair, is a senior research associate in the Space Radiation Laboratory at Caltech. Dr. Mewaldt’s research interests cover spacecraft and balloon-borne measurements of energetic nuclei and electrons accelerated in solar energetic particle events, galactic cosmic rays, the heliosphere, and Earth’s magnetosphere. His work has focused specifically on studies of elemental and isotopic composition and the implications of these measurements for energetic particle origin, acceleration, and transport; on solar particle and cosmic-ray impacts on space weather; and on the development of high-resolution instru- mentation to extend these measurements. Dr. Mewaldt has been a co-investigator on the NASA missions IMP-7, IMP-8, and ISEE-3 and a guest investigator on HEAO-3, and he is currently a co-investigator on the NASA Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Explorer (SAMPEX) and on STEREO, and mission scientist for the Advanced Composition Explorer. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from Washington University. Dr. Mewaldt’s NRC membership includes the Committee on Cosmic-Ray Physics and the Panel on Particle, Nuclear, and Gravitational-wave Astrophysics. SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, Vice Chair, is a research astrophysicist in the Heliophysics Division of NASA GSFC. Dr. Antiochos is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. His fields of expertise include theoretical solar physics and plasma physics. Dr. Antiochos’s work consists primarily of developing theoretical models to explain observations from NASA space missions. During his career he has worked on a number of problems related to the Sun and heliosphere, in particular, the physics of magnetic-driven activity and the structure of the Sun’s corona. Dr. Antiochos previously served as the head of the Solar Theory Section in the Space Science Division at NRL. He also served as a postdoctoral fellow at the NCAR and as a research associate at Stanford Uni- versity. Dr. Antiochos is a co-investigator on NASA’s STEREO mission, part of the Solar-Terrestrial Probes program. He served as chair of the Solar Physics Division for AAS. Dr. Antiochos has authored or coau- thored more than 100 refereed papers in archival journals. He is a fellow of the AGU, a recipient of the AAS George Ellery Hale Prize for outstanding contributions to the field of solar astronomy, and a recipient of the National Research Laboratory’s E.O. Hulburt Award, the NRL’s highest honor for scientific achieve- ment. Dr. Antiochos received his Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. He served previously on the NRC’s Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration and the Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs.

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APPENDIX F 395 TIMOTHY S. BASTIAN is assistant director of the Office of Science and Academic Affairs at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, where he has been an astronomer since 1987. He also is an adjunct faculty member in the Astronomy Department at the University of Virginia. Dr. Bastian’s research interests include solar and stellar radiophysics. He is currently the principal investigator for the Solar Radio Burst Spectrom- eter project and served on the faculty of the NCAR Summer School on Heliophysics. Dr. Bastian served as scientific editor of the Astrophysical Journal. He received a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado. Dr. Bastian served on the 2003 NRC Panel on the Sun and Heliospheric Physics. JOE GIACALONE is an associate professor of planetary sciences at the University of Arizona. Prior to com- ing to the University of Arizona, Dr. Giacalone was a research associate at Queen Mary and Westfield Col- lege, London. His core research interests include understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays and other charged-particle species in the magnetic fields of space, and general topics in space plasma physics and astrophysics. He develops physics-based theoretical and computational models that are used to interpret in situ spacecraft observations. Dr. Giacalone is a recipient of the NSF’s Early CAREER award. He currently serves as a member of NASA’s Living With a Star TR&T Steering Committee and as secretary for the SPA/SH subdivision of the AGU. Dr. Giacalone earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Kansas. He has also served on a NASA senior review panel for NASA Data and Modeling Centers and on the Steering Committee for NSF’s SHINE program. GEORGE M. GLOECKLER is distinguished university professor, emeritus, University of Maryland, and research professor in the Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences Department at the University of Michigan. Dr. Gloeckler’s research focuses on space plasma physics, particularly the properties of the local interstellar medium, such as its magnetic field, the density and composition of its gas, and its interaction with the solar system. He is known for developing a new experimental measurement technique based on observations of interstellar pickup ions and for pioneering discoveries and the invention of instruments carried on satellites and deep-space probes, including the two Voyagers, Ulysses and Cassini. Elected to the NAS in 1997, Dr. Gloeckler is also a fellow of the AGU and APS and a recipient of the COSPAR Space Science Award. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. Dr. Gloeckler has served on the NRC’s Committee on Fusion Science Assessment, the Committee for a Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. JOHN W. (JACK) HARVEY is an astronomer at the National Solar Observatory (NSO), where he studies solar magnetic and velocity fields and helioseismology. Dr. Harvey’s major efforts have been in the design and development of instrumentation for community use in these research areas. His more recent research has focused on unambiguous observations of permanent magnetic field changes associated with solar flares, discovery that the quiet solar photosphere has a ubiquitous, rapidly changing, mainly horizontal magnetic field, and solar chromospheric magnetic field structure associated with coronal holes and prominences. Dr. Harvey is a member of the NSO Scientific Personnel Committee, instrument scientist for the GONG project, and project scientist for the SOLIS project. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Colorado, Boulder. In the outside community, Dr. Harvey serves on NASA and NSF review panels and is a past co-editor of the journal Solar Physics. He chaired recent reviews of solar programs in Japan and Switzerland. Dr. Har- vey has served on the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, as well as other NRC panels and projects. RUSSELL A. HOWARD is an astrophysicist at NRL. Dr. Howard’s research has centered on understanding the physics of the solar corona and the coronal mass ejection phenomenon—its initiation, propagation,

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396 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY and eventual interplanetary effects. He is currently the principal investigator for the operating experiments SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI and two experiments under development, the Solar Orbiter/SoloHI and the Solar Probe Plus WISPR. Dr. Howard developed the CCDs and CCD cameras for LASCO and EIT, for which he received an NRL Royalty Award, and he is currently developing the APS/CMOS sensor for SoloHI and WISPR. He was the project scientist for the development of the Solwind and LASCO corona- graphs and led the development of the LASCO/EIT flight software and ground system. Dr. Howard has been a co-investigator on numerous NASA projects, including an XUV CCD detector development program. He has more than 200 papers in the refereed literature. He received the E.O. Hulburt Science Award, which is the highest award that NRL gives to a scientist, and the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Award. Dr. Howard earned a B.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in chemical physics, both from the University of Maryland. JUSTIN KASPER, see committee entry above. ROBERT P. LIN is a professor in the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley.1 Dr. Lin is a world-renowned experimentalist in space science. Through numerous innovative instruments that have flown on NASA missions, he has revealed the behavior of electrons and ions accelerated by the Sun and has detected the accompanying X-ray and gamma-ray emissions. As an astrophysicist, his primary interest is in how particles are accelerated to high energies in nature. To study these processes, Dr. Lin has developed instruments to directly measure the plasma, fields, and energetic particles and flown them on spacecraft into regions where acceleration is occurring. He is particularly interested in the Sun as the most powerful accelerator in our solar system, accelerating particles to the highest energies. Dr. Lin conducts imaging and spectroscopy of the X rays and gamma rays emitted by energetic particles at the Sun, as well as directly detecting the accelerated particles that escape to the interplanetary medium. He studies the acceleration that occurs in transient events that involve the phenomena of magnetic reconnection or collisionless shock waves. Dr. Lin is the principal investigator on the Gamma Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares experiment, which will utilize high-altitude balloons but is not funded by the NASA suborbital program but by the Support- ing Research and Technology program. He is a member of the NAS. Dr. Lin received his Ph.D. from UC Berkeley in 1967. He is a member of the NRC’s SSB and has served on many committees, including the Committee on NASA’s Suborbital Research Capabilities and the Panel on Solar and Space Physics. GLENN M. MASON is on the senior professional staff at JHU/APL, where he is currently an investigator for the Remote Analysis Site for the Ultra Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer particle instrument in the ACE mission. Dr. Mason was a professor in the Department of Physics and at the Institute for Physical Science and Technology at the University of Maryland, College Park. He has worked on the development of novel instrumentation that allows determination of the mass composition of solar and interplanetary particles in previously unexplored energy ranges. His research has included work on galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and the acceleration and transport of particles both in the solar atmosphere and in the interplanetary medium. Dr. Mason is principal investigator on the NASA SAMPEX spacecraft mission and is co-investigator on energetic particle instruments for the NASA Wind spacecraft and the ACE spacecraft. He received his A.B. in physics from Harvard College and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. Dr. Mason was former chair of the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Advisory Subcommittee, the NASA Space Science Advisory Committee, and the Steering Committee of the Space Science Working 1  The survey committee notes with regret that Dr. Lin died on November 17, 2012.

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APPENDIX F 397 Group of the Association of American Universities. He previously served on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. EBERHARD MOEBIUS is a professor of physics at the University of New Hampshire. He worked as a research scientist at the Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik in Germany, and has been on the physics faculty at University of New Hampshire. His research interests include the acceleration of ions in Earth’s magnetosphere, in interplanetary space, and in solar flares; the interaction of interstellar gas with the solar wind; and the study of the local interstellar medium. Dr. Moebius’s group is finishing the PLASTIC instrument to measure the solar wind and suprathermal ion composition for NASA’s STEREO mission and is involved in several studies for future missions to Earth’s magnetosphere and the heliosphere. He earned his Ph.D. in laboratory plasma physics at Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany. MERAV OPHER is an assistant professor of astronomy at Boston University. Prior to that, Dr. Opher was an associate professor at George Mason University and was a research scientist at JPL, where she con- ducted research on the interaction between the solar and interstellar winds found at the edge of the solar system. As a postdoctoral associate with the Plasma Group in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA, she investigated the effects of electromagnetic fluctuations on nuclear reaction rates and how these plasma effects can influence stellar evolution and early universe calculations. Her research interests focus on plasma effects in space physics and astrophysics. Dr. Opher received a Ph.D. in plasma astrophysics from the University of São Paulo, Brazil. She served on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. JESPER SCHOU is currently a senior research scientist at Stanford University. Dr. Schou is the instrument scientist and co-investigator for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on SDO. His research interests include solar variability, solar magnetic activity, and helioseismology. He has written over 70 refereed papers. Dr. Schou holds a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Aarhus. He has been chairman of the GONG Data Management and Analysis Center Users Committee, a member of the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Management Operations Working Group, and a member of the scientific organizing com- mittees for SOHO14/GONG 2004, SDO 2008, and SOHO 24. NATHAN A. SCHWADRON is an associate professor of astronomy at Boston University and the science operations lead for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Mission. Dr. Schwadron’s previous experience includes positions as a senior research scientist, a principal scientist and a staff scientist at the SwRI in San Antonio, Texas, an assistant research scientist at the University of Michigan, a senior research scientist at the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland, and a postdoctoral scholar in the University of Michigan’s Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science Department. His research interests include helio- spheric phenomena related to the solar wind, the heliospheric magnetic field, pickup ions, cometary X rays, energetic particles, and cosmic rays. He received a B.A. with honors in physics from Oberlin College and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Michigan. Dr. Schwadron served on the NRC Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion and is a member of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. AMY R. WINEBARGER is an astrophysicist at NASA MSFC. She previously worked as an assistant pro- fessor at Alabama A&M University, a research scientist at NRL, and an astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Her research interests include solar coronal heating, solar flare heating, energy growth and release in coronal mass ejections, comparisons between simulation results and observables, analysis of spectroscopic and filter data, development and testing of filter response functions, and hydro-

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398 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY dynamic code validation and verification. She is the recipient of an NSF CAREER Award. Dr. Winebarger received an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Alabama, Huntsville. DANIEL WINTERHALTER is a principal scientist with JPL, California Institute of Technology. His research interests include the spatial evolution of the solar wind into the outer reaches of the heliosphere, as well as its interaction with, and influence on, planetary environments. He has published articles in refereed journals and edited two books on this subject. Most recently he has been interested in the low-frequency radio emissions from the (presumed) magnetospheres of extrasolar planets, for which his team has carried out observations with the world’s largest radio telescopes. As a member of several flight teams over the years, Dr. Winterhalter is and has been intimately involved with the planning, launching, and operating of complex spacecraft and space science missions. He received a NASA Special Recognition Certificate for his work on Mars Observer. Dr. Winterhalter is the experiment representative for the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer team, and until recently was the investigation scientist for the Cassini Radio Science Experi- ment. He was the study scientist for the space science Mercury Orbiter effort in 1996 and the pre-project scientist for the Mars Science and Telecom Orbiter. Dr. Winterhalter has received achievement awards for his participation on the Voyagers 1 and 2, Pioneer 11, and Mars Observer, Mars Global Surveyor, and Cassini interplanetary probes. He received an M.S. and a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from UCLA. Dr. Winterhalter previously served on the NRC’s NASA Technology Roadmaps: Instruments and Computing Panel. THOMAS N. WOODS is the associate director for Technical Divisions at LASP at the University of Colo- rado, Boulder. He previously held research scientist positions at LASP and HAO. His research is focused primarily on solar ultraviolet irradiance and its effects on Earth’s atmosphere. Dr. Woods is the principal investigator for numerous experiments, including the EUV Variability Experiment on the NASA SDO; X-Ray Sensor and EUV Sensor on NOAA GOES-R; Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment as a mission for NASA’s Earth Observing System; and the Solar EUV Experiment on the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics mission. He received an M.A. and a Ph.D. in physics from Johns Hopkins University. Staff ARTHUR A. CHARO, Study Director, joined the SSB as a senior program officer in 1995. He has directed studies that have resulted in some 30 reports, notably the first NRC decadal survey in solar and space physics (2003) and in Earth science and applications from space (2007). Dr. Charo received his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow in chemical physics at Harvard Uni- versity from 1982 to 1985. He then pursued his interests in national security and arms control at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs, where he was a research fellow from 1985 to 1988. From 1988 to 1995, he worked as a senior analyst and study director in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Charo is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security (1985-1987) and a Harvard-Sloan Foundation Fellowship (1987-1988). He was the 1988-1989 American Institute of Physics AAAS Congressional Science Fellow. In addition to NRC reports, he is the author of research papers in molecular spectroscopy, reports on arms control and space policy, and the monograph “Continental Air Defense: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defense” (University Press of America, 1990).

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APPENDIX F 399 ABIGAIL A. SHEFFER joined the SSB in fall 2009 as a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow to work on the report Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013- 2022. She continued with the SSB to become an associate program officer. Dr. Sheffer earned her Ph.D. in planetary science from the University of Arizona and her A.B. in geosciences from Princeton University. Since coming to the SSB, she has worked on several studies, including Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions, and The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report. MAUREEN MELLODY has been a program officer with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) since 2002, where she has worked on studies related to NASA’s aeronautics research and develop- ment program, servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, and many other projects in space and aeronautics. Previously, she served as the 2001-2002 AIP Congressional Science Fellow in the Office of Representative Howard L. Berman (D-Calif.), focusing on intellectual property and technology transfer. Dr. Mellody also worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of Michigan in 2001. She received her Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in applied physics from the University of Michigan and her B.S. in physics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. LEWIS B. GROSWALD, research associate, joined the SSB as the Autumn 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern. Mr. Groswald is a graduate of George Washington University, where he received a master’s degree in international science and technology policy and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs, with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia. Following his work with the National Space Society during his senior year as an undergraduate, Mr. Groswald decided to pursue a career in space policy, with a focus on educating the public on space issues and formulating policy. He has worked on NRC reports covering a wide range of topics, including near-Earth objects, orbital debris, life and physical sciences in space, and planetary science. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. DANIELLE PISKORZ, a Fall 2011 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern in the SSB, graduated from MIT with a degree in physics and a minor in applied international studies. She worked on various research projects at L’Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, LANL, and JPL and spent her junior year studying at the University of Cambridge. Ms. Piskorz began graduate studies in Fall 2012 in geophysics. LINDA M. WALKER, a senior project assistant, has been with the NRC since 2007. Before starting with the SSB, she was on assignment with the National Academies Press. Prior to working at the NRC, she was with the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy in Falls Church, Virginia. Ms. Walker has 28 years of administrative experience. TERRI BAKER was a senior program assistant with the SSB until April 2012. She came to the SSB from the National Academies’ Center for Education. Mrs. Baker has held numerous managerial, administrative, and coordinative positions.

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400 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY BRUNO SÁNCHEZ-ANDRADE NUÑO was a National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Tech- nology Policy Graduate Fellow for the SSB. Dr. Sánchez is currently the director of science and technology at the Global Adaptation Institute (GAIN), where he is responsible for model development, data mining, methodological development, and visualization techniques to support the GAIN Index. He previously worked for 2 years as a space and rocket scientist at NRL. His work has focused on solar data analysis and project planning for NASA rockets and satellites. He was also on the faculty of George Mason Univer- sity. In 2008, Dr. Sánchez obtained his Ph.D. in astrophysics at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany. HEATHER D. SMITH was a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow for the SSB. Dr. Smith is currently a Planetary Science Division management postdoctoral fellow at NASA Head- quarters. Her research area is astrobiology instrumentation and life in extreme environments, in particular microbial physical habitats. Dr. Smith completed her doctorate in biological engineering at Utah State University, where her dissertation was on the design of a native fluorescence life detection instrument for soils. Prior to this, she earned a master of science in space studies from International Space University analyzing the flight checkout data for the Surface Science Package on board the Huygens probe, worked for several years at NASA Ames Research Center as a research assistant for the SETI Institute, earned an undergraduate degree in physics from Evergreen State College, and earned a bachelor’s degree in psychol- ogy from the University of North Texas. MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the ASEB at the NRC. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, BPA, the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.