G

Acronyms

AAS American Astronomical Society
ACE Advanced Composition Explorer
ACR anomalous cosmic ray
AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research
AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory
AFWA Air Force Weather Agency
AGS Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division
AGU American Geophysical Union
AIA Atmospheric Imaging Assembly
AIM atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere (system); Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere
  (mission)
AIMI atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions
AIP American Institute of Physics
AMISR Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar
AMPERE Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment
AMPTE Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers
AO Announcement of Opportunity
APS American Physical Society; active pixel sensor
AST Division of Astronomical Sciences
ATST Advanced Technology Solar Telescope
AU astronomical unit
AURA Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy
AXAF Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility
BARREL Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses
BBSO Big Bear Solar Observatory


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G Acronyms AAS American Astronomical Society ACE Advanced Composition Explorer ACR anomalous cosmic ray AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AFWA Air Force Weather Agency AGS Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division AGU American Geophysical Union AIA Atmospheric Imaging Assembly AIM atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere (system); Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (mission) AIMI atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions AIP American Institute of Physics AMISR Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar AMPERE Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment AMPTE Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers AO Announcement of Opportunity APS American Physical Society; active pixel sensor AST Division of Astronomical Sciences ATST Advanced Technology Solar Telescope AU astronomical unit AURA Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy AXAF Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility BARREL Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses BBSO Big Bear Solar Observatory 401

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402 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY CADRE CubeSat Investigating Atmospheric Density Response to Extreme Driving CAREER Faculty Early Career Development CASSIOPE Cascade, Small Satellite, and Ionospheric Polar Explorer CATE cost and technical evaluation CAWSES Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System CCD charge-coupled device CCE Charge Composition Explorer CCMC Community Coordinated Modeling Center CDC Concept Design Center CEDAR Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions CHAMP Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload CINDI Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamic Investigation CINEMA CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, Magnetic Fields CIR corotating interaction region CISM Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling CME coronal mass ejection CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor C/No carrier signal-to-noise strength C/NOFS Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System COBE Cosmic Background Explorer CoBRA Complexity Based Risk Assessment COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate COSMO Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPU central processing unit CRRES Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite CSSWE Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment DASI distributed array of small instruments DC direct current DICE Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment DLR German Aerospace Center DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellites Program DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DRIVE Diversify, Realize, Integrate, Venture, Educate DSCOVR Deep Space Climate Observatory DYNAMIC Dynamical Neutral Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (mission) EASCO Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory ECT Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite EIA equatorial ionization anomaly EISCAT European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association ELaNa Educational Launch of Nanosatellites ENA energetic neutral atom ENASI Energetic Neutral Atom Spectroscopic Imager

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APPENDIX G 403 EPO education and public outreach e-POP Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe EPP energetic particle precipitation ESA European Space Agency ESCAPE Energetics, Sources and Couplings of Atmosphere-Plasma Escape ETA equatorial temperature anomaly EUV extreme ultraviolet EUVI extreme ultraviolet imager EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment FAA Federal Aviation Administration FASR Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope FAST Fast Aurora Snapshot FDSS Faculty Development in Space Science FIREBIRD Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range, and Dynamics FOXSI Focusing Optics X-ray Spectroscopic Imager FUV far ultraviolet FWHM full-width, half-maximum FY fiscal year GCR galactic cosmic ray GDC Geospace Dynamics Constellation GEM Geospace Environment Modeling GEO geostationary Earth orbit GI guest investigator GIC geomagnetically induced current; ground-induced current GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems GOCE Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GONG Global Oscillation Network Group GPS Global Positioning System GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRIPS Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares GRIS Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center GSRP Graduate Student Research Program GUVI Global Ultraviolet Imager GW gravity waves HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAO High Altitude Observatory HEAO High Energy Astronomy Observatory HEIDI High Energy Imaging Device HEO high Earth orbit (above GEO) HF high frequency HI Heliospheric Imager

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404 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY HIREGS High Resolution Gamma-Ray and Hard X-Ray Spectrometer HITDP Heliophysics Instrument and Technology Development Program HPDE Heliophysics Data Environment HSC heliophysics science center HSO Heliophysics Systems Observatory HSS high-speed solar wind streams HSW halo solar wind HTP Heliophysics Theory Program HXR hard X-ray IBEX Interstellar Boundary Explorer IGS International GNSS Service IGY International Geophysical Year IHY International Heliophysical Year IKAROS Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation of the Sun IMAGE Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration IMAP Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe IMF interplanetary magnetic field IMP Interplanetary Monitoring Platform IMPACT In Situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients INCA Imaging Neutral Atom Camera INMS Ion Neutral Mass Spectrograph IR infrared IRIS Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ISEE International Sun-Earth Explorer ISI Institute for Scientific Information ISM interstellar medium ISMF interstellar magnetic field ISOON Improved Solar Observing Optical Network ISR incoherent scatter radar ISS International Space Station IT ionosphere-thermosphere ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations ITM ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere IVM Ion Velocity Meter JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory L1 Sun-Earth Lagrangian Point 1 L5 Sun-Earth Lagrangian Point 5 LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LBH Lyman-Birge-Hopfield LCAS Low-Cost Access to Space LECP low-energy charged-particle

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APPENDIX G 405 LEO low Earth orbit LET Low Energy Telescope LISM Local Interstellar Medium LPV Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance LT local time LWS Living With a Star MAC Magnetospheric-Atmosphere Coupling (mission) MagCat Magnetospheric Constellation and Tomography (mission) MagCon Magnetospheric Constellation (mission) MEDICI Magnetosphere Energetics, Dynamics, and Ionospheric Coupling Investigation MEMS microelectromechanical system MESSENGER Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging MHD magnetohydrodynamic MI magnetosphere-ionosphere MIDEX Mid-size Explorer MISTE Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Source Term Energetics (mission) MIT magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere MLSO Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MLT mesosphere and lower thermosphere MMS Magnetospheric Multiscale (mission) MO&DA mission operations and data analysis MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MPS Mathematical and Physical Sciences MREFC Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (program) MRF Medium-Scale Research Facility MSO Mees Solar Observatory MWO Mt. Wilson Observatory NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service NESSF NASA’s Earth and Space Science Fellowship (program) NGDC National Geophysical Data Center NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NJIT New Jersey Institute of Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NSO National Solar Observatory NST New Solar Telescope NSWP National Space Weather Program NuSTAR Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array NWM Neutral Wind Meter NWS National Weather Service

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406 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OCT Office of the Chief Technologist OEDG Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (program) ORBITALS Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite OVSA Owens Valley Solar Array PARS Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science PFISR Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar PI principal investigator POES Polar Operational Environmental Satellite P-POD Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer PUI pickup ion PW planetary waves QBO quasi-biennial oscillation RE Earth radius RS Sun radius R&A research and analysis RAX Radio Aurora Explorer RBSP Radiation Belt Storm Probe; renamed Van Allen Probes REPT Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope REU Research Experiences for Undergraduates RFI request for information RHESSI Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager RISR Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar ROSES Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences RPA Ion Retarding Potential Analyzer SABER Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry SALMON Stand Alone Missions of Opportunities Notice SAMPEX Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer SAPS subauroral polarization streams SCOSTEP Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics SDO Solar Dynamics Observatory SEE Solar Eruptive Events (mission) SEP solar energetic particle SFO San Fernando Observatory SHINE Solar, Heliosphere and Interplanetary Environment SHP solar and heliospheric physics SKR Saturnian Kilometric Radio SM servicing mission SMD Science Mission Directorate SMEI Solar Mass Ejection Imager SMEX Small Explorer SNOE Student Nitric Oxide Explorer SNR signal-to-noise ratio

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APPENDIX G 407 SO Solar Orbiter SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOLIS Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun SOON Solar Observing Optical Network SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SPA Space Physics and Aeronomy SPARC Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate SPASE Space Physics Archive Search and Extract SPD Solar Physics Division SPI Solar Polar Imager SPP Solar Probe Plus SRAG Space Radiation Analysis Group SRP solar radiation pressure SR&T supporting research and technology SSP solar sail propulsion SSPIS Solar and Space Physics Information System STE suprathermal electron STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEREO Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory STP Solar-Terrestrial Probes (program) SuperDARN Super Dual Auroral Radar Network SUVIT Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope SWaC space weather and climatology SWAP space, weight, and power SWICS Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer SWL Space Weather Laboratory SWMI solar wind-magnetosphere interactions SWPC Space Weather Prediction Center SXT Soft X-Ray Telescope TDRSS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TEC total electron content TEX tiny Explorers THEMIS Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms TIM Total Irradiance Monitor TIMED Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics TR&T Targeted Research and Technology TRACE Transition Region and Coronal Explorer TRL technology readiness level TS termination shock TSI total solar irradiance TWINS Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UHURU Small Astronomical Satellite 1, Swahili for Freedom ULDB Ultra Long Duration Balloon

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408 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY USAF U.S. Air Force USGS U.S. Geological Survey USML U.S. Munitions List UT universal time UV ultraviolet UVCS Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer V1 Voyager 1 V2 Voyager 2 VxO (domain-specific) virtual observatory WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System WACCM Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model WBS work breakdown structure WHI Whole Heliosphere Interval WLC White Light Coronagraph WPI wave-particle interaction WSA-Enlil Wang-Sheely-Arge-Enlil WSO Wilcox Solar Observatory