I

List of Responses to Request for Information

Listed in Table I.1 are the responses received by the Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) in response to its request for information (RFI) sent in September 2010 to the solar and space physics community (see Appendix H). The full-text versions of the RFI responses are included in the compact disk that contains this report and are also available online through links at the survey’s website at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/SSB/CurrentProjects/SSB_056864.

TABLE I.1 Responses to Request for Information

 

RFI Response Number   First Author   Response Title   Summary Description

 

1   Ali, Nancy A., et al.   Recommendations for Education/Public Outreach (EPO) Programs: A White Paper Submitted for Consideration to the NRC Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics   Addresses EPO as a major contributing factor to workforce development in solar and space physics as well as in creating a scientifically literate U.S. public.
2   Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.   Research to Operations (R2O) Activities, a Natural Conclusion of Research   Details transitions of academic models to operations, which require an organizational structure and a clear financial commitment that barely exists today.
3   Ayres, Thomas R., and D. Longcope   Ground-Based Solar Physics in the Era of Space Astronomy   Provides a synopsis of a 2009 report commissioned by AURA in advance of the Astro2010 decadal survey concerning the future of ground-based solar physics.
4   Bach, Bernhard, et al.   The Use of a Z-pinch Facility as a Platform for Laboratory Solar and Heliophysics   Explores the utilization of Z-pinch facilities to create and investigate the physics of high-energy-density plasmas.


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I List of Responses to Request for Information Listed in Table I.1 are the responses received by the Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) in response to its request for information (RFI) sent in September 2010 to the solar and space physics community (see Appendix H). The full-text versions of the RFI responses are included in the compact disk that contains this report and are also available online through links at the survey’s website at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/SSB/CurrentProjects/SSB_056864. TABLE I.1  Responses to Request for Information RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 1 Ali, Nancy A., et al. Recommendations for Education/Public Addresses EPO as a major contributing factor Outreach (EPO) Programs: A White to workforce development in solar and space Paper Submitted for Consideration to physics as well as in creating a scientifically the NRC Decadal Survey in Solar and literate U.S. public. Space Physics 2 Araujo-Pradere, Research to Operations (R2O) Activities, Details transitions of academic models to Eduardo A. a Natural Conclusion of Research operations, which require an organizational structure and a clear financial commitment that barely exists today. 3 Ayres, Thomas R., Ground-Based Solar Physics in the Era of Provides a synopsis of a 2009 report and D. Longcope Space Astronomy commissioned by AURA in advance of the Astro2010 decadal survey concerning the future of ground-based solar physics. 4 Bach, Bernhard, The Use of a Z-pinch Facility as a Explores the utilization of Z-pinch facilities et al. Platform for Laboratory Solar and to create and investigate the physics of high- Heliophysics energy-density plasmas. 412

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APPENDIX I 413 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 5 Bailey, Scott M., A Mission to Study the Coupling of Proposes a mission to understand the et al. Atmospheric Regions by Precipitating atmospheric response to energetic particles, Energetic Particles specifically the coupling of atmospheric regions, as the particle energy is redistributed via dynamical, chemical, and radiative processes. 6 Baker, Joseph B.H., The Importance of Distributed Explains the value of networks of ionospheric et al. Measurements of the Ionospheric radars to the space physics community because Electric Field for Advancement they provide spatially distributed electric field of Geospace System Science and measurements and should be further developed. Improved Space Weather Situational Awareness 7 Bala, Ramkumar Space Weather Forecasting through Advocates for stronger community participation. Association 8 Balch, Christopher The Next Step in Heliospheric Proposes an enhanced interplanetary observing C. Modeling—Increasing the network consisting of up to 1,000 CubeSats Interplanetary Observing Network and recommends use of known technologies and modeling techniques to make order of magnitude improvements in the accuracy of physics-based models for the solar wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs). 9 Bandler, Simon R., High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Describes a solar-optimized X-ray et al. Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for microcalorimeter that provides high-resolution Solar Physics spectra at arcsecond scales to enable a wide range of studies, such as the detection of microheating in active regions, ion-resolved velocity flows, and the presence of non-thermal electrons in hot plasmas. 10 Bellan, Paul M. Using Laboratory Experiments to Study Recommends that the next decade of Solar Corona Physics heliospheric research include advanced laboratory plasma experiments designed to tackle specific, outstanding coronal issues. 11 Bernasconi, Pietro Solar Magnetized Regions Tomograph Presents a mission to map the solar vector N., and N.-E. (SMART) Mission magnetic fields at high spatial resolution at Raouafi several heights in the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the chromosphere across the magnetic transition region. 12 Bhattacharjee, Advanced Computational Capabilities Recommends that NASA, perhaps in partnership Amitava, et al. for Exploration in Heliophysical Science with National Science Foundation (NSF) and (ACCEHS)—A Virtual Space Mission other agencies, lead by establishing a new peer- reviewed program in which critical-mass groups of heliophysicists, computational scientists, and applied mathematicians are brought together to address transformational science quests. 13 Bishop, Rebecca Understanding Tropospheric Influences Presents specific science goals and observational L., et al. on the Mesosphere/Thermosphere/ platforms required to perform investigations Ionosphere Region into tropospheric and thermospheric/ ionospheric coupling. 14 Bishop, Rebecca L., The International Space Station: Presents potential upper atmospheric and J. Roeder Platform for Future Upper Atmospheric investigations, sensors, and customers utilizing Investigations the International Space Station. continued

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414 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 15 Bookbinder, Jay, The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Presents the Solar Spectroscopy Explorer, a et al. Mission small strategic mission built around an X-ray microcalorimeter and a high spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imager. 16 Bortnik, Jacob, and MMAP: A Magnetic-Field Mapping Outlines a novel mission that aims to Y. Nishimura Mission Concept observationally map the geomagnetic field from geosynchronous Earth orbit to the ionosphere in near-real time using the recently described link between pulsating aurora and chorus waves. 17 Bortnik, Jacob The Critical Role of Theory and Highlights the critical role that was played Modeling in the Dynamic Variability of by theoretical and modeling projects in the the Radiation Belts and Ring Current preceding decade and urges the decadal committee to support further modeling efforts dealing with wave-particle interactions in controlling the structure and dynamics of the radiation belts. 18 Brown, Benjamin An Experimental Plasma Dynamo Advocates for community-scale laboratory P., et al. Program for Investigations of plasma experiments that offer unique Fundamental Processes in Heliophysics opportunities to probe heliophysically relevant phenomena. 19 Brown, Michael R., Intermediate-Scale MHD Wind Tunnel Proposes an intermediate scale et al. for Turbulence and Reconnection magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind tunnel for Studies turbulence studies in order to illuminate MHD turbulence processes such as observed in the solar wind. 20 Budzien, Scott A., Evolved Tiny Ionospheric Photometer Addresses the requirements for space et al. (ETIP): A Sensor for Ionospheric weather sensors with adequate flexibility Specification for accommodation on a range of future flight opportunities, including microsatellite constellations. 21 Budzien, Scott A., The Volumetric Imaging System for the Describes a mission for volumetric et al. Ionosphere (VISION) characterization of the ionosphere using optical tomography. 22 Budzien, Scott A., Heterogeneous Measurements for Emphasizes that space weather forecasting with et al. Advances in Space Science and Space new, full-physics models requires heterogeneous Weather Forecasting datasets with complementary characteristics— not merely a higher volume of any single data type. 23 Burch, James L., Magnetospheric Causes of Saturn’s Proposes a three-spacecraft mission to identify et al. Pulsar-Like Behavior the cause of Saturn’s periodicity. 24 Burger, Matthew Understanding Mercury’s Space Recommends a strong program to combine H., et al. Environment-Magnetosphere- ground-based and spacecraft observations, Exosphere System: A Unified Strategy laboratory measurements, and numerical for Observational, Theoretical, and modeling to maximize the science return from Laboratory Research these missions. 25 Burkepile, Joan R., The Importance of Ground-Based Proposes the use of a new K-coronagraph that et al. Observations of the Solar Corona will provide dramatically better data of the very low corona.

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APPENDIX I 415 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 26 Carpenter, Kenneth Stellar Imager (SI): Developing and Proposes a mission to resolve surface magnetic G., et al. Testing a Predictive Dynamo Model for activity and subsurface structure and flows the Sun by Imaging Other Stars of a population of Sun-like stars in order to accelerate the development and validation of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun and enable accurate long-term forecasting of solar/ stellar magnetic activity. 27 Cassak, Paul, et al. The Development of a Quantitative, Proposes a multi-pronged and interdisciplinary Predictive Understanding of Solar Wind- effort to understand observationally and Magnetospheric Coupling theoretically what controls solar wind- magnetospheric coupling and how to predict it. 28 Chakrabarti, Domestication of Scientific Satellites Proposes the use of a flexible and scalable Supriya, et al. satellite system design in order to fill the wide gap between CubeSats and small Explorer missions and make space accessible to a new generation of Explorers. 29 Chandran, Theoretical Research on Solar Wind Describes several areas in which future research Benjamin D.G., Turbulence on theory of solar wind turbulence holds et al. particular promise and offers brief policy recommendations. 30 Chau, Jorge L., et al. An Ionospheric Modification Facility for Proposes the deployment of an ionospheric the Magnetic Equator modification facility, also called ionospheric heater, near the geomagnetic equator. 31 Chi, Peter J., et al. A National Ground Magnetometer Recommends the establishment of a national Program for Heliophysics Research ground magnetometer program to help coordinate, maintain, and enhance the magnetometer networks in North America. 32 Chollet, Eileen E., Career Development for Postdoctoral Discusses some career development issues early et al. and Early Career Scientists career scientists face and recommends some community changes that will help the field retain young talent. 33 Christe, Steven D., The Focusing Optics X-­ ay Solar Imager r Proposes a mission to learn how and where et al. (FOXSI) electrons are accelerated, along which field lines they travel away from the acceleration site, where they are stopped, and how some electrons escape into interplanetary space, using the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager. 34 Christian, Eric R., Heliophysics Instrument and Describes a program to reinvigorate hardware et al. Technology Development Program development, provide a pathway for new (HITDP) technology to be infused into missions, develop the next generation of instrument scientists, and ensure a healthy science mission program. 35 Christensen, The International Space Station as a Demonstrates that the Exposed Facility on the Andrew B., et al. Space Physics Observation Platform V2 Japanese Experiment Module is suitable for siting optical instrumentation and conducting scientific experiments. continued

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416 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 36 Chu, Xinzhao, et al. Space Lidar Mission to Study Middle Proposes a mission to make high-resolution and Upper Atmosphere Dynamics and temperature, wind, and Na-density Chemistry measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and to study the upper atmosphere chemistry, structure, and dynamics, especially the impact of gravity waves, using space Na Doppler lidar. 37 Chu, Xinzhao, and Whole Atmosphere LIDAR for Whole Proposes a mission to profile wind and J. Thayer Atmosphere Study temperature through the whole atmosphere from ground to 120 km with superlative accuracy and with whole atmosphere lidar. 38 Chua, Damien H., Geospace Dynamics Imager: A Proposes a mission to provide the first direct, et al. Mission Concept for Heliospheric and global images of the solar wind-magnetosphere Magnetospheric Imaging and Space system with the Geospace Dynamics Imager. Weather Forecasting 39 Chutjian, Ara, et al. Laboratory Solar Physics from Molecular Describes an addition to the Jet Propulsion to Highly-Charged Ions: Meeting Future Laboratory facility to provide a compact storage Space Observations of the Solar Plasma ring with the new, required measurement and Solar Wind capabilities. 40 Cirtain, Jonathan The High-Latitude Solar-C International Proposes a mission to fly a focused suite of W., et al. Collaboration: Observing the Polar instruments designed to study the solar interior Regions of the Sun and Heliosphere flows (by helioseismology), surface magnetic fields, transition region, and extended corona from an orbit inclined at least 40 degrees to the ecliptic plane. 41 Clarke, John T., White Paper on Comparative Planetary Recommends the observation of planetary and et al. Exospheres satellite exospheres by enhanced ground-based and new Earth-orbiting telescopic instruments. 42 Claudepierre, Seth A CubeSat Constellation to Study Proposes a mission to constrain the azimuthal G., et al. Magnetospheric Ultra-Low Frequency mode number spectrum of magnetospheric Pulsations ultralow-frequency pulsations. 43 CoBabe-Ammann, The Importance of Student Details how student instrument programs Emily, et al. Instrument Programs in the Workforce attract, retain, and move students through the Development in Solar and Space higher education pipeline into graduate studies Physics and the scientific and engineering workforce. 44 Codrescu, Mihail Data Assimilation for the Thermosphere Develops global data assimilation schemes using and Ionosphere coupled thermosphere ionosphere models and large amounts of diverse data. 45 Cohen, Christina Protecting Science Mission Investment: Addresses the necessary balance between data M.S., et al. Balancing the Funding Profile for Data analysis funds and support for guest investigator Analysis Programs programs. 46 Colgate, Stirling A. Experiments to Demonstrate Solar and Explains how experiments have shown that Astrophysical Dynamos turbulence leads primarily to enhanced resistive diffusion and not a dynamo. 47 Conde, Mark G. Constructively Growing the Sounding Proposes that a competitive line of sounding Rocket Program: A Technology rocket launches be added to the existing Development Line of Sounding Rocket scientifically competed program. Launches

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APPENDIX I 417 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 48 Cooper, John F., Space Weathering Impact on Solar Explains how surfaces and atmospheres directly et al. System Surfaces and Mission Science exposed to space environments of planetary magnetospheres, the heliosphere, and the local interstellar environment are eroded and chemically modified. 49 Coster, Anthea J., Investigations of Global Space Weather Proposes improvements in the global et al. with GPS distribution of ionospheric sensors. 50 Cranmer, Steven Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectroscopy: Describes how ultraviolet coronagraph R., et al. A Key Capability for Understanding the spectroscopy enables measurements of the Physics of Solar Wind Acceleration collisionless processes responsible for producing the solar wind. 51 Davila, Joseph M., The International Space Weather Details the deployment of 100 new instruments et al. Initiative (ISWI) in Africa and around the world, including GPS, magnetometers, particle detectors, H-alpha telescopes, and radio spectrographs. 52 Davila, Joseph M., Understanding Magnetic Storage, Recommends the tracing of magnetic fields with et al. Reconnection, and CME Initiation a high-resolution coronagraph. 53 de la Beaujardiere, Global scintillation prediction Proposes a systems-approach mission to predict Odile, and C. Fesen scintillations from ultra-high frequency to L-band at all latitudes. 54 de la Beaujardiere, Long-Term Changes in the Ionosphere/ Recommends that the Defense Weather Satellite Odile, and D. Ober Magnetosphere System and Reliable System accommodate instruments that provide Platform for Innovations in Space the observations required for long-term trends Sensors in the magnetosphere ionosphere system as well as provide a reliable “home” for flight opportunity to test new instruments. 55 Denig, William F., On the Utility of Operational Satellite Recommends increased interaction between the et al. Data to Solar and Space Physics operational and research communities. Research 56 Desai, Mihir I., et al. Particle Acceleration and Transport in Proposes a mission to determine the the Heliosphere (PATH) mechanisms responsible for the acceleration and propagation of SEPs through the inner heliosphere. 57 Donovan, Eric The Great Geospace Observatory and Presents a novel concept of a cost-effective Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity multiagency initiative to fly the “Great Geospace Observatory” and provide a revolutionary three- dimensional view of Earth’s plasma environment. 58 Dorelli, John C., A Proposal for a Computational Proposes that NASA create a program to ensure et al. Heliophysics Innovation Program (CHIP) that the heliophysics community keeps up with the rapidly advancing high performance computing frontier over the next decade. 59 Doschek, George A. A Concept White Paper for a New Describes a possible Bragg crystal spectrometer Solar Flare Instrument Designed to experiment that could provide spectroscopic Determine the Plasma Parameters in plasma diagnostics of the reconnection region the Reconnection Region of Solar Flares of solar flares, such as electron temperature, at Flare Onset turbulence, flows, and polarization. continued

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418 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 60 Doschek, George The High Resolution Solar-C Proposes a collaboration to observe A., et al. International Collaboration simultaneously the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution with proposed high-resolution Solar-C mission. 61 Dyrud, Lars, et al. A Crucial Space Weather Effect: Meteors Describes the importance of the interplanetary and Meteoroids meteoroid and dust environment to support studies of solar system evolution, solar wind, upper atmospheric physics, planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, planetary geology, and manned and unmanned spacecraft. 62 Dyrud, Lars, et al. Commercial Access to Space for Describes the observations required to achieve Scientific Discovery and Operations the greatest scientific advances with arrays of scientific sensors distributed throughout the system gathering data. 63 Eastes, Richard W. Far Ultraviolet Imaging of the Earth’s Proposes a mission to provide full disk images Thermosphere and Ionosphere of atmospheric temperature and composition during the daytime and electron densities in the F2 region of the ionosphere at night using far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral imaging from geostationary orbit. 64 Ebbets, Dennis, C., Flight Opportunities for Hosted Invites ideas for flying sensors as hosted et al. Payloads on the Iridium NEXT Satellites payloads on the NEXT constellation of commercial communications satellites being developed by Iridium Satellite. 65 Elkington, Scot R., MORE/ORBITALS: An International Proposes support for the MORE/ORBITALS and X. Li Mission to Advance Radiation Belt mission, an international collaboration to build Science a spacecraft to study the dynamical evolution of the radiation belts. 66 Emmert, John T., Geospace Climate Present and Future Describes the importance of the systematic et al. response of geospace to natural and anthropogenic forcing for societal utilization of this environment. 67 England, Scott, L Concept Paper: An Investigation of the Proposes a mission concept that addresses ion- et al. Coupling of the Earth’s Atmosphere to neutral coupling. Its Plasma Environment 68 Englert, Christoph, Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Proposes the use of the Spatial Heterodyne R., et al. An Emerging Optical Technique for Spectroscopy for NASA missions. Heliophysics and Beyond 69 Eparvier, Francis G. The Need for Consistent Funding of Explores how to avoid the risk of the haphazard, Facilities Required for NASA Missions precarious, and inconsistent funding of calibration and test facilities, which are necessary for the success of NASA missions such as NIST SURF Beamline-2.

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APPENDIX I 419 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 70 Erickson, Philip J., Investigations of Plasmasphere Proposes a focused attack on advancing et al. Boundary Layer Processes in the knowledge of ionospheric structuring and space Coupled Earth-Sun Geospace System weather effects driven by magnetosphere/ ionosphere coupling in the critically important subauroral plasmasphere boundary layer, through use of multipoint measurement networks in both the American and Australian sectors. 71 Fennell, J.F., et al. The Magnetospheric Constellation Reconsiders the original Magnetospheric Mission Constellation Mission concept for implementation in the next decade. 72 Fennell, J.F., and P.T. Mission to Understand Electron Pitch Proposes a mission to understand the processes O’Brien Angle Diffusion and Characterize and answer the questions raised by observations Precipitation Bands and Spikes of precipitation bands. 73 Fennell, J.F. Enhancement of POES Instruments to Encourages the National Oceanic and Provide Better Space Weather Electron Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to seriously Data consider flying an electron sensor that measures the precipitating and trapped electron fluxes in the 40-2000 keV energy range on a continuous basis to fulfill operational and science needs discussed. 74 Fennell, J.F., et al. Transition Region Exploration (TREx) Describes the science need for a mission that Mission spans the L* region from 4.5 to 8.5 in the equatorial plane. 75 Fleishman, Gregory Uncovering Mechanisms of Coronal Recommends capitalizing on new (or soon to D., et al. Magnetism via Advanced 3D Modeling be available) facilities such as Solar Dynamic of Flares and Active Regions Observatory (SDO), the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), and the Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope and the challenges they present. 76 Florinski, Vladimir, The Outer Heliosphere—Solar System’s Discusses the need for a dedicated theoretical et al. Final Frontier program to study the physics of the outer heliosphere and identifies four main thrust areas: global structure, pickup ions and anomalous cosmic rays, galactic cosmic rays, and physics of the termination shock and heliopause. 77 Foster, John DASI: Distributed Arrays of Scientific Demonstrates the importance of a larger- Instruments for Geospace and Space perspective point of view to appreciate how the Weather Research individual features of geospace come together. 78 Frahm, Rudy A. Interaction of the Solar Wind with a Proposes a spacecraft experiment that deals Partially Magnetized Planet with our nearest neighbor planet, Mars, and its interaction with the space environment. 79 Frazier, Jr., Jesse R. Alternate Magnetic Thermodynamics Presents the author’s unconventional views on magnetism and energy. 80 Fritts, Dave, et al. Solar Forcing of the Thermosphere and Describes the motivations for a mission Ionosphere from Below: Coupling via addressing neutral atmosphere-ionosphere Neutral Wave Dynamics coupling via neutral waves propagating into the thermosphere and ionosphere from the lower atmosphere and the auroral zone. continued

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420 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 81 Fritz, Theodore, A., Particle Acceleration and Entry of Solar Recommends the investigation of energetic and B.M. Walsh Wind Energy into the Magnetosphere particle acceleration in the cusp and the contributions of such a population to the plasma sheet and radiation belt. 82 Fry, Dan J., et al. Solar Proton Event Risk Modeling for Proposes a strategy that will utilize agency Variable Duration Human Spaceflight science to feed the development of needed near-term probabilistic models that assess solar proton event risk for long-duration human exploration. 83 Fuller-Rowell, Tim, Forecasting Ionospheric Irregularities Discusses the pressing need to develop a et al. capability to forecast the likely occurrence of ionospheric irregularities and their detrimental impact on communications and navigation. 84 Fung, Shing F., et al. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Proposes a mission with a high-altitude Connector (MAGIC): Investigation of satellite for auroral and plasmaspheric imaging Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling and multiple lower-orbiting spacecraft for from High-to-Low Latitudes simultaneous in situ and radio sounding measurements. 85 Fuselier, Stephen Stereo Magnetospheric Imaging (SMI) Proposes energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging A., et al. Mission mission using two spacecraft at the lunar L4 and L5 Lagrange points to investigate plasma processes at the bow shock and magnetopause, and in the cusps and magnetotail, lunar interactions, and heliospheric and interstellar phenomena. 86 Gary, Dale E., et al. The Frequency-Agile Solar Proposes that a wide range of science goals Radiotelescope (FASR) can be addressed with a solar-dedicated radio telescope in a high state of readiness, with superior imaging capability and broad frequency coverage. 87 Gary, Dale E., et al. Particle Acceleration and Transport on Describes the comprehensive observations the Sun required to understand particle acceleration and particle transport on the Sun. 88 Gentile, L.C., et al. Scintillation and Energy Input for Space Provides a new generation of space Situational Awareness and Monitoring environmental monitoring instruments to the Environment (SESSAME) measure high-latitude energy input and scintillation at both high and equatorial latitudes. 89 Gentile, L.C., et al. Constellation for Heliospheric and Proposes to advance understanding of Ionospheric Equatorial Forecasting of ionospheric effects on communication and Scintillation (CHIEFS) navigation systems with a constellation of small, dedicated satellites orbiting the equator, combined with data from ground-based instruments. 90 Gentile, L.C., et al. Polar and Equatorial Communication Gives a low-cost solution that meets many Outage Satellites (PECOS) current space weather objectives with three paired constellations of small satellites flying in multiple orbits.

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APPENDIX I 421 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 91 Giampapa, Mark Asteroseismology: The Next Frontier in Recommends comparative studies of the S., et al. Solar-Stellar Physics influence of parameters such as rotation and convection zone structure on dynamo-related magnetic activity at all relevant timescales. 92 Giampapa, Mark, Causes of Solar Activity Emphasizes the critical importance of a S., et al. sustained program of long-term, high-continuity observations of the solar magnetic field by a network of ground-based synoptic-type instruments. 93 Gilbert, Jason A. What Composition Measurements Examines the science benefits that composition Could Have Done for Solar Probe Plus data would have brought to the Solar Probe Plus missions, which explore the source regions of the solar wind and of inner-source pickup ions. 94 Gjerloev, Jesper W., Auroral Forms and Their Role in the Urges the committee to include the et al. Dungey Convection Cycle fundamental science objectives: What is the role of meso-scale auroral forms in the Dungey global convection cycle? 95 Gjerloev, Jesper W., SuperMAG: The Global Ground Based Urges the decadal survey committee to et al. Magnetometer Initiative acknowledge the strength of the ground-based magnetometer data set and the need for global collaborations such as SuperMAG. 96 Golub, Leon, et al. RAM: The Reconnection and Microscale Outlines a new approach to understanding the Mission dynamic activity of hot, magnetized plasmas using the best example available, the solar corona, with the goals of determining the configurations that lead to energy release and locating sources of high-energy particles. 97 Goncharenko, Coupling Through Planetary Waves: Proposes an observational strategy that would Larisa P., et al. From the Stratosphere to Ionospheric investigate potential effects of planetary waves Irregularities on irregularities. 98 Goode, Philip The 1.6 m Clear Aperture Optical Solar Describes how the largest aperture (1.6 m) solar Telescope in Big Bear—The NST telescope will provide an essential complement to SDO, Hinode, and other satellite data, especially as a probe of the space weather. 99 Gopalswamy, Nat, Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Outlines the concept of a mission that will make et al. Observatory (EASCO): A New View from remote sensing and in situ measurements from Sun-Earth L5 the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L5 to understand the origin and evolution of large-scale solar disturbances such as coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions. 100 Gross, Nicholas, Value and Need of Helio and Space Highlights the value of space physics summer and J. Sojka Physics Summer Schools schools and encourages the continued funding of similar efforts. 101 Gross, Nicholas Value of Enhanced Mentoring in Space Outlines the value of enhancing mentoring that and Helio Physics a center provides through exposure of students to a broad range of mentors and activities. 102 Grotheer, Determination of Optical Spectra and Recommends research to determine negative Emmanuel B., et al. G-values for Negative Ions of Low-Mass ions’ emission spectra and g-values and Atoms and Molecules discusses interactions of solar wind with Mercury’s magnetosphere and surface. continued

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422 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 103 Habbal, Shadia R., Exploring the Physics of the Corona Supports total solar eclipse observations in the et al. with Total Solar Eclipse Observations visible and near infrared wavelength range to explore the physics of the corona, in particular on August 21, 2017. 104 Heelis, Rod Magnetosphere Atmosphere Coupling Proposes a mission to discover the spatial and Mission (MACM) temporal scales over which the ionosphere and thermosphere respond to magnetospheric energy inputs and determine how magnetospheric sources and wind dynamos contribute to the electric field in the ionosphere and thermosphere. 105 Heelis, Rod Space-Atmosphere Boundary Layer Proposes a mission to uncover the pathways Electrodynamics (SABLE) through which energy from the magnetosphere and solar wind is redistributed in Earth’s atmosphere. 106 Hess, Sebastien Exploration of the Uranus Proposes a middle-size mission to explore the L.G., et al. Magnetosphere Uranus magnetosphere with a minimal set of instruments that are necessary to address the most compelling questions about the Uranus magnetosphere and to improve understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere interactions in general. 107 Hill, Frank, et al. Helioseismology Supports ground-based multi-wavelength observations and space-based multi-viewpoint measurements in order to further understanding of space physics. 108 Hill, Frank, et al. The Need for Synoptic Optical Solar Discusses the value of long-term observations in Observations from the Ground understanding the Sun and its activity cycle and the importance of providing sufficient resources to obtain and improve the measurements. 109 Holzworth, Robert Lightning Influence on Ionosphere and Discusses the influence of lightning on H. Magnetosphere Plasma ionoshere and magnetosphere processes, gives history behind current knowledge, and suggests that lightning-generated plasma waves may be much more important to magnetospheric and ionospheric physics than is realized. 110 Horanyi, Mihaly, iDUST: Interstellar and Interplanetary Proposes a mission to observe the inward et al. Dust Near Earth: A Mission Concept for transport of interstellar dust and the outflow “Dust Tomography” of the Heliosphere of near-solar dust and explore dusty plasma processes throughout the heliosphere. 111 Huang, Cheryl A Satellite Mission Concept to Study Presents a satellite mission concept to study Thermosphere-Ionosphere Coupling ion-neutral coupling with an improvement in satellite drag modelling. 112 Huba, Joseph D., A Comprehensive, First-Principles Model Discusses the development of a new et al. of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities modeling capability that describes the onset and Turbulence and development of equatorial ionospheric irregularities covering a spatial range of tens of centimeters to thousands of kilometers.

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430 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 189 McConnell, Mark X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Polarimetry of Reviews the study of polarization at X-ray and L., et al. Solar Flares gamma-ray energies for a greater understanding of particle acceleration in solar flares. 190 McCormack, High Altitude Data Assimilation: Proposes a high-altitude data assimilation John P., and S. Characterizing the Effects of Solar system capable of exploiting satellite- and Eckermann Variability from the Ground to the ground-based observations using state-of- Thermosphere the-art assimilation techniques to improve the observational characterization of the atmospheric response to solar variations. 191 McDonald, Sarah The Importance of Thermospheric Presents specific examples where neutral wind E., et al. Winds for Ionospheric Modeling measurements are needed to enable reliable ionospheric modeling due to variations in the neutral wind, which drive a complex system of ionospheric currents and electric fields, profoundly influencing the structure and composition of the ionosphere. 192 McHarg, Matthew Measuring Energy Inputs and ITM Proposes a constellation of inexpensive G., and D. Knipp Response Using a Constellation of Small small satellites to provide measurements for Satellites understanding the fundamental physics that will enable ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere forecasting. 193 McIntosh, Scott W., The Solar Chromosphere: The Inner Discusses the status of chromospheric physics et al. Frontier of the Heliospheric System and the frontiers that are opening up following recent observational discoveries. 194 McIntosh, Scott W., ChroMag: The Community Synoptic Proposes a chromospheric magnetometry et al. Chromospheric Magnetograph mission to provide a comprehensive, synoptic spectro-polarimetric observational data set from spectral lines formed at multiple “heights” of the chromosphere and the very base of the corona. 195 McNutt, Ralph L., Interstellar Probe Proposes an interstellar probe that can be Jr., et al. launched during the coming decade. 196 Merkin, Viacheslav Synergy Between Large Data Sets, First- Advocates for the need of support for G., et al. Principles and Empirical Models of the programs that build on synergy between Magnetosphere currently available and future large data sets of ionospheric and magnetospheric measurements and physics-based models of the ionosphere- thermosphere-magnetosphere system. 197 Mertens, Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Describes the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Christopher J., et al. Radiation for Aviation Safety Radiation for Aviation Safety, a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. 198 Mertens, Ionospheric E-Region Chemistry and Proposes an Earth-observing, multisatellite Christopher J., et al. Energetics science mission to explore the last remaining frontier in upper atmospheric research—the ionospheric E-region.

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APPENDIX I 431 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 199 Miesch, Mark S., The Importance of Polar Observations Supports an out-of-ecliptic heliophysics mission et al. in Understanding the Solar Dynamo that focuses on observations of the magnetic structure, dynamics, and solar-cycle evolution of the polar regions of the Sun that will provide data of critical importance for understanding the solar dynamo mechanism and the cyclic nature of solar activity. 200 Millan, Robyn M., NASA’s Balloon Program: Providing Summarizes examples of balloon-based science et al. World-Class Science, Technology accomplishments and future opportunities and Development, and Vital Training of the advocates continued support of the Ultra Long Next Generation of Space Physicists Duration Balloon Program, increased support for small and mid-sized payloads and balloon flotillas, and appropriately scaled funding for development of new experiments. 201 Miller, Ethan S. Initiation of Irregularities in the Explores several theories and a variety of Equatorial F-Region Ionosphere space- and ground-based measurements that will be useful to test theories on the initiation of irregularities in the equatorial F region ionosphere. 202 Mitchell, Donald Geospace Magnetosphere-Ionosphere- Describes GEMINI, which uses two identical G., et al. Neutral Interaction (GEMINI) spacecraft in an 8 RE circular polar orbit for global, continuous imaging of the ring current, plasma sphere, atmospheric ultraviolet, and auroral emissions. 203 Mitchell, Elizabeth Center for Magnetosphere and Outlines an initiative to correct the erroneous J. Ionosphere Decoupling Investigations assumption of polar cap symmetry in ring current and radiation belt models. 204 Mlynczak, Martin Spectral Signatures of Geospace Proposes continued measurement of infrared G., et al. Climate Change spectral signatures of the energy balance of the geospace environment in order to identify and attribute causes and consequences of geospace climate change. 205 Moebius, Eberhard, NASA’s Explorer Program as a Vital Details the importance of Explorers to a mix et al. Element to Further Heliophysics of large and small mission opportunities for Research heliophysics in maintaining innovative research and a diverse infrastructure and in training the future workforce. 206 Moore, Thomas E., Mechanisms of Energetic Mass Ejection Proposes MEME to achieve the overarching et al. (MEME) objective of the 2009 Heliophysics Roadmap: Origins of Near Earth Plasmas—to understand the transport of terrestrial gas and plasma from its atmospheric source into the Magnetosphere and downstream Solar Wind. 207 Moore, Thomas E. Laboratory for Active Space Experiment Presents a case for the resumption of active Research (LASER) Program space experimentation in heliophysics. 208 Moses, J.D. Magnetic Properties of the Solar Summarizes the Solar Magnetism Explorer Atmosphere (SolmeX Cosmic Vision (SolmeX) mission proposal being submitted to Mission) the 2010 ESA Cosmic Vision call, which proposes to overcome the observational gap in the measurements of the coronal magnetic field. continued

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432 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 209 Nossal, Susan M. Long Term Observations for Trend Addresses the importance of long-term Studies observations for understanding the chemical and physical processes affecting the whole atmosphere system and recommends observations to enable long-term trend studies into the future. 210 Oberheide, Jens, Short-term Variability of the IT System Proposes a comprehensive observation program et al. to untangle the complex web of interacting processes and wave coupling that causes day-to- day variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system. 211 Oberoi, Divya, et al. Heliospheric Science at Low Radio Describes how the new generation of low- Frequencies radio-frequency telescopes provides effective means to exploit the electromagnetic propagation effects to probe the heliosphere and presents the possibility of characterizing it in unprecedented detail. 212 Oberoi, Divya, et al. High-Fidelity Coronal Imaging at Low Describes how spectroscopic imaging of the Sun Radio Frequencies at low radio frequencies with next-generation radio interferometers can play a crucial role in addressing many long-standing puzzles related to magnetic fields and heating mechanisms in the solar corona. 213 O’Brien, Thomas P. Long-term Monitoring of the Global Proposes a long-term inner magnetosphere Space Environment monitor in a geosynchronous transfer orbit, NASA-to-NOAA (research to operations) transfer of future NASA explorers after the end of their science mission. 214 Onsager, Terrance Need for Explicit Basic and Applied Advocates for distinct lines of funding by the G. Research Funding U.S. civilian agencies for basic space physics research and the development of space weather applications, maintaining distinct requirements for both. 215 Osten, Rachel A. Deepening the Solar/Stellar Connection Encourages deepening of the solar/stellar for a Better Understanding of Solar and connections, by recognizing a mutual Stellar Variability relationship from which both solar physicists and stellar astronomers can benefit. 216 Oza, Nikunj C., et al. Data Mining for Heliophysics Recommends new data mining techniques that are needed to support breakthroughs in heliophysics. 217 Papadopoulos, Active Experiments in Space— Describes a program that uses ionospheric Dennis Ionospheric Heaters heaters with ground and space diagnostics to study “cause and effect” space plasma processes of key importance to space plasma physics and geophysics. 218 Pevtsov, Alexei A. Current and Future State of Ground- Draws attention to need for development of Based Solar Physics in the U.S. a comprehensive long-term plan for ground- based solar physics.

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APPENDIX I 433 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 219 Pfaff, Robert, et al. Understanding Geospace on a Proposes a Frontier mission consisting of a Grand Scale: The Global Ionosphere/ constellation of observing platforms that would Thermosphere Constellation sample the ionosphere and thermosphere at all local times and latitudes and hence provide a revolutionary advance for understanding the processes that define this critical region of geospace. 220 Pfaff, Robert, et al. Sounding Rockets as Indispensable Provides an overview of the sounding rocket Research Platforms for Heliophysics program’s capabilities, which are critical for Research and Development of a High heliophysics research, and describes the High Altitude Sounding Rocket Altitude Sounding Rocket initiative. 221 Pilewskie, Peter, The Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Recommends continuity of the measurements of et al. Sensor: Response to the National total and spectral solar irradiance from space. Academy of Science Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics 222 Podesta, John, et al. High-resolution, High-accuracy Addresses the need for high-cadence, high- Plasma, Electric, and Magnetic Field accuracy plasma and field measurements to Measurements for Discovery of Kinetic diagnose kinetic scale processes in the solar Plasma Structures and Processes in the wind and interplanetary medium. Evolving Solar Wind 223 Rast, Mark P., et al. Next Steps in Solar Spectral Irradiance To understand the solar spectral output and its Studies coupling to climate is a challenge in the next decade with full-disk radiometric imaging of the Sun, high-resolution observation and modeling of globally unresolved dynamics, and coupling to models of radiative and dynamical processes at Earth. 224 Reardon, Kevin P., Approaches to Optimize Scientific Explains the value in the broader use of high- et al. Productivity of Ground-based Solar resolution, ground-based solar observations and Telescopes the need for university programs to train young scientists in the analysis of such data. 225 Rempel, Matthias, Modeling of Magnetic Flux Emergence Summarizes recent progress in modeling flux et al. Across Scales emergence from the base of the convection zone into the solar corona and details the need for modeling capabilities and large coordinated teams of investigators that are currently not supported through available programs. 226 Retterer, John M. Next Gen IT Modeling Infrastructure for Describes new infrastructure required for Space Weather Forecasting progress in ionosphere/thermosphere modeling, both for scientific progress and operational utility. 227 Richardson, John The Heliospheric Interaction with the Emphasizes the scientific progress to be made D., et al. LISM: Observations and Models by continuation of the Voyager mission with appropriate theoretical and modeling support. 228 Rickard, Lee J., et al. The Long Wavelength Array (LWA): A Provides a new approach for studying the Sun- Large HF/VHF Array for Solar Physics, Earth environment from the surface of the Sun Ionospheric Science, and Solar Radar through Earth’s ionosphere. 229 Ridley, Aaron J., A Constellation Mission to Understand Proposes an ionosphere/thermosphere et al. the Thermospheric Reaction to Energy constellation mission utilizing micro-satellites Input Across Scales to study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere after energy input. continued

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434 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 230 Roberts, D. Aaron, The Heliophysics Data Environment as Argues for the continued support of a et al. an Enabler of HP Science of the Next “heliophysics information system,” as Decade recommended in the previous decadal survey, as is being developed by many groups. 231 Roddy, Patrick A., The Atmospheric Density Specification Proposes a neutral mass spectrometer mission to and J.O. Ballenthin Experiment feed these models of the neutral thermosphere and improve atmospheric drag forecasts. 232 Roelof, Edmond C., Telemachus Redux Describes Telemachus, a technologically ready and G.B. Andrews low-to-medium-cost, dual-mode mission that addresses basic science questions of the dynamics of the subsurface, surface, and coronal dynamics of the polar regions of the Sun and the non-ecliptic solar wind, fields, and energetic particles. 233 Rowland, Douglas The Tropical Coupler Mission Proposes a mission to provide a complete E., et al. understanding of the forcing of the ionosphere and lower thermosphere by stratospheric and tropospheric effects at low latitudes and to determine the causes and consequences of internal ionospheric instabilities. 234 Russell, Christopher Determination of How Charged Recommends funding opportunities and T., et al. Interplanetary Dust Affects the Flowing mission opportunities for research on solar wind Magnetized Solar Wind turbulence, such as multiscale, multisatellite measurements in the undisturbed solar wind with dust detectors capable of measuring the mass, speed, charge, and elemental/chemical composition of the solar wind entrained grains, as well as sensitive plasma and field instruments. 235 Ryan, James M., Ground Based Measurements of Discusses the merits of measuring and et al. Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays monitoring solar and galactic cosmic rays at ground level. 236 Rymer, Abigail M. The Case for Exploring Uranus’ Advocates support from the heliophysics Magnetosphere community for a dedicated mission to Uranus, launched in the time frame 2020-2023 and designed to make detailed in situ observations of the unique Uranian magnetosphere. 237 Sanchez, Ennio R., Magnetic Meridian Ring of Incoherent Advocates the concept of positioning et al. Scatter Radars: Supporting Science atmospheric observatories built around Discovery and Tracing AIM Weather, incoherent scatter radars at points all around a Climate, and Global Change single geomagnetic meridian to provide global system scientists, modelers, and data consumers with the high-quality data they require. 238 Scherb, Frank The Abundance of Deuterium and He3 Describes a novel instrument for detecting and in the Solar Wind measuring solar wind deuterium. 239 Schreiner, William Using Space-Based GNSS Radio Addresses the scientific and operational needs S. Occultation Data for Ionospheric and for continuing global observations of the Space Weather Applications ionosphere and lower neutral atmosphere with Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation data.

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APPENDIX I 435 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 240 Schrijver, Karel, The Solar Magnetic Dynamo and Its Addresses the needs and opportunities for et al. Role in the Formation and Evolution of dynamo-related studies in the coming decade(s), the Sun, in the Habitability of Its Planets, including understanding the solar magnetic and in Space Weather around Earth dynamo by combining numerical studies and theory with observations of the evolving surface field of Sun and stars and of solar and stellar internal flows. 241 Schwadron, N.A., Research to Operations (Res2Ops)— Discusses the development of research- et al. Opportunities for Center Development to-operations centers at universities and laboratories to develop highly successful operational tools to fill demonstrated or emerging needs and combines best practices in engineering, physics, computer science, and management. 242 Schwadron, NESSC Summer School for Describes the New England Space Science Nathan A., et al. Undergraduates in Space Physics Consortium (NESSC), which can provide both governance and lecturers in a new 1- or 2-week summer school for undergraduate students that provides students with an intellectual background to help in the pursuit of research projects (e.g., an REU gateway) and graduate programs. 243 Semeter, Joshua, Energy Transfer from the Solar Wind to Recommends distributed measurements from et al. the Solid Earth ground and from space, coupled through first- principles modeling, to establish the global force balance governing the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. 244 Shih, Albert Y., et al. Solar Ion Acceleration and the Flaring Discusses the open science questions, the Atmosphere remotely observable signatures (e.g., gamma rays, neutrons, and energetic neutral atoms), and several instrument concepts that are associated with understanding solar ion acceleration, as well as the aspects of the flaring atmosphere that are probed by energetic ions. 245 Siskind, David E., Dynamical Ground-to-Space (G2S) Outlines the recent science linking the lower et al. Coupler to the upper atmosphere and discusses measurement strategies to understand these couplings. 246 Smith, Charles W., The Case for Continued, Multi-Point Argues for preservation of the distributed assets et al. Measurements in Space Science of space science that constitute the heliospheric “Great Observatory” and of this unique creation with all the opportunities it represents. 247 Smith, David M., The High-Energy Sun at High Sensitivity: Describes the extraordinary solar science et al. A NuSTAR Solar Guest Investigation expected from NuSTAR, a NASA small Explorer Program satellite to be launched in 2012 primarily for astrophysical observations, and outlines the advantages of a dedicated guest investigator program specifically to support NuSTAR solar observations. continued

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436 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 248 Smith, Steven M. Gravity Wave Coupling Processes Proposes a research strategy to forecast space Between the Lower Atmosphere weather phenomena with a fundamental and the Mesosphere and Lower understanding of the dynamics (e.g., energy Thermosphere and momentum flux budgets, chemistry, etc.) of Earth’s atmosphere as a whole system. 249 Smith, Steven M. Neutral Temperature and Wind Discusses the need for more accurate neutral Measurements of Earth’s Thermosphere temperature and wind climatologies of Earth’s lower thermosphere in the altitude range 100- 300 km. 250 Snow, Martin A., The Importance of Solar EUV and FUV Argues that extending the data record of solar et al. Irradiance Measurements for Space extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet Weather and Atmospheric Modeling (FUV) irradiances should continue to be a priority of the heliophysics community for understanding both the long-term (climate) and short-term (space weather) influence of the Sun on the atmosphere. 251 Sojka, Jan J. Adoption of a Paradigm Shift for Space Presents a case for collaboration between all Exploration space science funding agencies to support synergistic activities that benefit all and provides the links between science and applications that will produce the expected societal benefits. 252 Solomon, Stanley Modeling and Measurement of Upper Proposes a program of model development and C., and L. Qian Atmosphere Climate Change space-based measurements for understanding and quantifying the increasing temperatures of the upper atmosphere. 253 Spann, James F., A Cross-Agency Enabling Effort Focused Presents an approach to address the lack of et al. on Space Weather Observations and a robust national coordinated research-to- Research-to-Operation Transition application program for space weather and a lack of sufficient relevant space- and ground- based observations by proposing a joint federal agency program involving NASA, NOAA, and NSF. 254 Spann, James F., A NASA Applied Spaceflight Presents a solution to the NASA problem that et al. Environments Office Concept there is no coordinated activity to harness the valuable knowledge and products across the field centers related to spaceflight environments, which includes space weather. 255 Spann, James F., Dynamic Geospace Coupling Mission Addresses fundamental questions related to et al. plasma processes that determine how energy and momentum from the solar wind propagate downward through geospace to Earth and proposes a multi-spacecraft implementation with imaging and in situ instruments. 256 St. Cyr, O.C., et al. Space Weather Diamond: A 10x Promotes an applied heliophysics mission Improvement in Real-Time Forecasting concept to facilitate the connection between science and societal needs (e.g., improvements in space weather prediction) by providing an order of magnitude improvement over present- day L1 monitors. 257 St. Cyr, O.C., et al. Solar Orbiter: Exploring the Sun- Describes the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission, Heliosphere Connection including the science and mission design.

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APPENDIX I 437 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 258 Stephan, Andrew Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere- Provides a robust method for obtaining W., et al. Mesosphere (ITM) Mapping Across necessary routine space weather maps of the Temporal and Spatial Scales near-Earth space weather volume for both scientific inquiry and operational users by combining global imaging and low-altitude sensors measuring ultraviolet airglow. 259 Stevens, Michael Direct Observations of Global-Scale Describes a mission to study global-scale H., et al. Transport in the Lower Thermosphere dynamics by observing tracers injected by vehicles launched from a satellite in geosynchronous orbit. 260 Stoneback, Russell Effective Aperture Behavior on the Proposes continued research on a model to A. Earth and Sun investigate the apparent equivalence between high-latitude currents on both Earth and the Sun and currents used to calculate the diffracted field produced by an aperture. 261 Streltsov, Anatoly V. Multi-scale Electrodynamics of Proposes comprehensive, multi-fluid, wave- Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Interactions particle numerical models with predictive capabilities to address observations from satellites, sounding rockets, and radars conducted in the high-latitude magnetosphere and the ionosphere, which frequently measure intense unexplained electromagnetic fields and currents. 262 Strong, Keith T., 4PI: A Global Understanding of the Solar Proposes a mission to provide the first et al. Cycle continuous view of the solar magnetic field and plasma dynamics mapped from below the surface into the corona, over all solar longitudes with extended polar coverage, and tracks the evolution of the dynamo(s) throughout at least a solar cycle. 263 Swenson, Charles CubeSats in Heliophysics Research Emphasizes that CubeSat technologies M., et al. represent a significant opportunity for achieving multipoint observations from within the space environment. 264 Swenson, Gary R. Remote Sensing the Upper Atmosphere Advocates development of lidar technology with Lidar from Space for remote sensing of the upper atmosphere/ ionosphere. 265 Szabo, Adam, et al. Solar Wind Kinetic Physics: High Time Advocates refurbishment of the DSCOVR Resolution Solar Wind Measurements spacecraft to obtain unprecedented high time from the DSCOVR Mission resolution solar wind measurements from the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point at minimal NASA cost. 266 Szabo, Adam, et al. Energetic Particle Propagation and Proposes the Solar Sentinels mission to provide Coronal Mass Ejection Evolution in the in situ particle and field observations to answer Inner Heliosphere: Multi-point In-Situ questions of solar energetic particle transport Solar Sentinels Observations and interplanetary coronal mass ejection evolution in the inner heliosphere. continued

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438 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 267 Talaat, Elsayed R., Electrodynamics Observations with Proposes a suite of small satellites distributed et al. Numerous Satellites in local time at F-region altitudes with essential instrumentation to address ion-neutral coupling and the roles of the disturbance dynamo, tidal dynamos, and magnetospheric penetration electric fields in determining the global electrodynamics. 268 Tomczyk, Steven, COSMO—The Coronal Solar Magnetism Presents the science justification and technical et al. Observatory overview of the Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO), a facility dedicated to the measurement of magnetic fields and plasma properties in the solar corona to advance understanding of the Sun’s generation of space weather. 269 Tylka, Allan J. Heliophysics System Science and Offers suggestions and recommendations Funding for Extended Missions regarding adequate funding for extended missions concerning all areas of heliophysics science. 270 Valladares, Cesar E. On Understanding the Origin of Plasma Describes two ionospheric processes that Density Variability Within the Polar Cap contribute to the high variability of the plasma density within the polar cap: polar cap patches and Sun-aligned arcs. 271 Velli, Marco, et al. SAFARI: Solar Activity Far Side Proposes a mission to explore the origins of solar Investigation magnetic activity by carrying out observations of the velocity and magnetic fields at the solar surface from a vantage point widely separated from Earth in longitude. 272 Vial, Jean-Claude Fast UV Spectro-imagery for Solar Argues that imaging Fourier transform Physics spectroscopy should be pursued to measure temperature, density, ionization, and abundance, along with magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere in three dimensions and time, in the high chromosphere, corona, and the transition region. 273 Vourlidas, Angelos, Mission to the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrangian Argues that a research-to-operations approach et al. Point: An Optimal Platform for is the best strategy to foster the vibrancy of Heliophysics and Space Weather the field in the next decade, spearheaded by a Research mission to the L5 Lagrangian point. 274 Vourlidas, Angelos, A Proposal to Lighten the Burden of Describes the problem of the overly restricted and A. Rymer International Traffic in Arms Regulations regulatory regime on science missions classified on Heliophysics Research as “defense systems” and provides a set of recommendations to improve this situation. 275 Walterscheid, Gravity Wave Propagation in the Advocates further understanding of the upward Richard, et al. Dissipative and Diffusively Separated coupling of waves from the lower atmosphere Thermosphere and new observations combined with models of acoustic-gravity waves for thermospheric regions where rapid dissipation and diffusive separation prevail.

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APPENDIX I 439 TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 276 Walterscheid, Effects of Large Amplitude Planetary Demonstrates clear evidence that tides and Richard L., and J.H. Waves in the Ionosphere and planetary waves strongly affect each other, Hecht Thermosphere including the particularly interesting case of the rapid amplification of the Southern Hemisphere two-day wave to very large amplitudes via interactions with tides. 277 Walterscheid, The Paired Ionosphere-Thermosphere Proposes a mission to utilize two spacecraft Richard L., et al. Orbiters (PITO) Mission: Multipoint in equal but opposite eccentric orbits, so that Geospace Science in 3D when one is at apogee the other is at perigee and located within the field of view of the other, using combined measurements of the best features of remote sensing (coverage) with in situ measurements (detail). 278 White, Stephen M., Coronal Magnetic Fields Outlines the difficulties in making advances et al. in coronal magnetism and describes the developments needed to make progress over the next decade. 279 Wilson, Gordon R., Local Response of the Ionosphere/ Designs a mission to monitor the atmospheric and D. Ober Thermosphere to High-Latitude Energy response in a local high-latitude region while Deposition simultaneously measuring the magnetospheric energy input to that region. 280 Wood, Kent S., et al. Continuous FUV/EUV Imaging of the Recommends new imaging systems to generate Ionosphere from Geosynchronous Orbit measurements in two-dimensional formats continuously for large regions with high spatial resolution. 281 Wu, Qian Global Airglow Interferometer Limb- Describes a concept for a high-altitude scanner (GAIL)—A New Thermospheric limb-scan instrument that will measure the Wind Instrument thermospheric winds (200 to 300 km) by recording wind-induced Doppler shift in the O 630-nm airglow emission day and night. 282 Yizengaw, Understanding the Unique Equatorial Proposes ground-based scientific instrument Endawoke, et al. Electrodynamics in the African Sector arrays in the African sector, a region that has been devoid of ground-based instrumentation for space science, in order to address the physics behind the unique equatorial ionospheric irregularities and bubbles often observed. 283 Zank, G.P., and J.R. A White Paper Advocating a Recommends a major theory program that has Jokipii Heliophysics Theory Mission the status of a mission. 284 Zank, G.P. Role of the National Science Foundation Recommends that the NSF Division of ATM/GEO Directorate in Promoting and Atmospheric Sciences (ATM) Geosciences Supporting Space Physics Directorate (GEO) not limit funding of heliospheric research to within 1 AU. 285 Zhang, Shunrong, Understanding Upper Atmospheric Details the effects that the changes in Earth’s et al. Climate and Change upper atmosphere, thermospheric density, and ionospheric electron density will have on human activities. 286 Zhang, Yongliang, Partition and Variability of the Addresses questions on partition and variability and L.J. Paxton Magnetospheric Energy Input into the of the magnetospheric energy input to the polar Polar Ionosphere ionosphere, its dissipation, and its relation to the solar wind condition with multisatellite and ground-chain measurements. continued

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440 SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS: A SCIENCE FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY TABLE I.1  Continued RFI Response Number First Author Response Title Summary Description 287 Zhou, Xiaoyan, Dayside Aurora and Auroral Conjugacy Discusses the scientific significance of dayside et al. and conjugate auroras that have less ambiguity in the connection to their causes. 288 Zhu, Ping Meso Scale Transients in Magnetotail Proposes to systematically investigate meso- and Their Roles in Substorm Dynamics scale transients in the magnetotail, which may play key roles in mediating and regulating the transition process from the late substorm growth phase to the beginning of onset expansion.