FIGURE 2.11 Top: Mean 1984-2009 January daytime convective cloud amount in percentage from ISCCP-D2. Blue indicates 10-15 percent, yellow/green indicates approximately 8 percent, and red indicates 0-4 percent. Bottom: Average ionospheric equatorial densities derived from TIMED GUVI observations of 135.6-nm OI emissions showing unexpected wave structure in ionospheric densities on the same longitude scales as the tropospheric pressure waves. The double-banded structure is due to the neutral wind dynamo at the magnetic equator which transports equatorial plasma north and south of the equator. SOURCE: Top: The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D2 data/images (described in W.B. Rossow and R.A. Schiffer, Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80:2261-2288, 1999) were obtained in January 2005 from the ISCCP website (available at and maintained by the ISCCP research group at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, N.Y.). Bottom: S.L. England, X. Zhang, T.J. Immel, J.M. Forbes, and R. Demajistre, The effect of non-migrating tides on the morphology of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly: Seasonal variability, Earth, Planets and Space 61:493-503.


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