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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH06CE15B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Grant AGS-1050550 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-3: 978-0-309-16428-3
International Standard Book Number-0: 0-309-16428-1
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013940083

Cover: Insets, from the top: Solar Dynamics Observatory, full-disk multiwavelength extreme ultraviolet image of the Sun (NASA/GSFC/AIA); depiction of a coronal mass ejection and Earth's magnetosphere (Steele Hill/NASA); Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radars at Resolute Bay (Craig Heinselman, EISCAT); ultraviolet image of the southern polar region of Saturn with its aurora (here shown inverted) from the Hubble Space Telescope (NASA/ESA/J. Clarke, Boston University/Z. Levay, STScI); depiction of the regions of the heliosphere (NASA); and bow shock around the star LL Orionis (NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Background images: View from the International Space Station of the Midwestern United States and the aurora borealis (NASA).

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