organizational trust in this middle level—and nurturing and hiring champions of the needed transformation efforts within it—is as essential as ensuring clear leadership at the top.

The role and impact of modern information systems can be seen in terms of the ecosystems in which the systems exist. Along with user and process ecosystems that make up the operational ecosystem that is its reason for being, an information system exists in several other ecosystems, including those defined by its organizational, management, development, and operational contexts. As with a user or process ecosystem, the success of a modernized information system depends critically on understanding and addressing those contexts (which are ecosystems in themselves), each of which must participate in and support the modernization effort and adopt the resulting system. For example, the information system must align with organizational missions and goals; modernization requires management support and leadership to address significant challenges; and it requires the development and operational life cycles to have the means to support the transformation.

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