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procedures). Tetlock and Mellers show how, in other domains, research has documented the benefits and limitations to such practices, while focusing the feedback that is needed for improved accuracy. They show how the IC might close this critical knowledge gap.

In Chapter 12, Steve W. J. Kozlowski summarizes research relevant to how organizations acquire, build, and sustain effective workforces. He distinguishes their needs in acquiring human resources and building human capital, then identifies practices relevant to each. For the former, he stresses the demonstrated importance of having people with the right combinations of cognitive ability, personality, and values. For the latter, he stresses the training needed to provide people with mission-specific knowledge and skills (e.g., languages and country-specific knowledge). He also reports on research into creating effective performance incentives.

In Chapter 13, Amy Zegart addresses research on organizational change. She describes obstacles to adopting new practices in private sector firms and the special challenges that make adaptation even more difficult for intelligence agencies. She then considers research showing the crucial and often hidden importance of organizational structure for aggregating information and organizational learning. Next, she turns to political science, examining the limits of personal leadership and the power of harnessing individual incentives to foster change. Finally, she cautions against using much of the popular management literature as a guide for intelligence reform.



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