planned or are under consideration in other regions that have historically experienced severe earthquakes, including the Pacific Northwest, Utah, and Alaska.


Much time and money have been spent educating the public in the areas of preparedness and emergency management. However, such educational campaigns often have not proven very fruitful for three key reasons: (1) The time or space allocated for public service announcements is limited, and many pro bono commercials run late at night. (2) Emergency management professionals may not be familiar with marketing. Indeed, few undergraduate or graduate programs provide courses in public education, outreach, or marketing. (3) Professionals with marketing expertise tend not to be involved in emergency planning and preparation activities.

Several organizations have aimed to close the gaps listed above by creating guidelines for public awareness. Two of them, the Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP), a nonprofit organization that provides assessment and accreditation of emergency management programs and personnel, and CBS Outdoor, a for-profit advertisement managing firm, have developed a set of blueprints for creating public awareness plans and educational initiatives. EMAP’s public awareness program guideline, Assessing Your Disaster Public Awareness Program, was issued in 2006.1 In formulating its guidelines, EMAP convened experts from a wide variety of disciplines. The contribution of CBS Outdoor was An Approach to Preparedness, a blueprint for emergency managers to use in creating a public education and outreach plan.2

The blueprints from EMAP and CBS Outdoor, along with an extensive body of earlier work,3 lay out guidelines for the development of success-


Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP). Assessing Your Disaster Public Awareness Program. EMAP, Washington, D.C., October 2006.


CBS Outdoor. An Approach to Preparedness. CBS Outdoor, New York, N.Y. 2007.


E.g., Dennis Mileti, Sarah Nathe, Paula Gori, Marjorie Greene, and Elizabeth Lemersal, Public Hazards Communication and Education: The State of the Art, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Boulder, Colo., 2004; Dennis S. Mileti and John H. Sorensen, Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-of-the-Art Assessment (Report ORNL-6609 for the Federal Emergency Management Agency), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1990; Michael K. Lindell and Ronald W. Perry, Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning, Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C., 1992; Dennis S. Mileti and Colleen Fitzpatrick, “Communication of Public Risk: Its Theory and Its Application,” Sociological Practice Review 2(1):20-28 (1991); and Dennis S. Mileti, Colleen Fitzpatrick, and Barbara C. Farhar, “Fostering Public Preparations for Natural Hazards,” Environment 34(3):16-20, 6-39 (1992).

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