Sociocultural Data to Accomplish Department of Defense Missions

TOWARD A UNIFIED SOCIAL FRAMEWORK

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Robert Pool, Rapporteur

Planning Committee on Unifying Social Frameworks

Board on Human-Systems Integration

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Sociocultural Data to Accomplish Department of Defense Missions TOWARD A UNIFIED SOCIAL FRAMEWORK WORKSHOP SUMMARY Robert Pool, Rapporteur Planning Committee on Unifying Social Frameworks Board on Human-Systems Integration Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. N00014-05-G-0288, DO #26 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Naval Research. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-18516-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-18516-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover credits: The top photo is of U.S. Army Maj. Bobbie Mayes, a resident of Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, and the Women’s Empowerment coordinator with the Kentucky Agribusiness Development team. She is handing off supplies to one of the graduates at the Director’s of Agriculture Livestock and Irrigation Compound, Kapisa province, Afghanistan, January 6, 2011. Courtesy photo. U.S. Army by Spc. Kristina Gupton/Released. The bottom photo is of Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul, Shinkay Detachment Team Lead Maj. Trever Nehls, who was given a turban by new Shinkay District Gov. Barat Khan during a shura, or meeting, in Shinkay District, Zabul province, Afghanistan, January 6, 2011. Photo by Staff Sgt. Brian Ferguson. Both photo images are from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2011). Sociocultural Data to Accom- plish Department of Defense Missions: Toward a Unified Social Framework: Workshop Summary. Robert Pool, Rapporteur. Planning Committee on Unifying Social Frameworks. Board on Human-Systems Integration, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON UNIFYING SOCIAL FRAMEWORKS Judee Burgoon (Chair), Center for Identification Technology Research and Eller College of Management, University of Arizona Robert Albro, School of International Service, American University Randy Borum, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences, University of South Florida Andrew S. Imada, A.S. Imada & Associates, Carmichael, CA David Laitin, Department of Political Science, Stanford University Michael W. Morris, Columbia Business School and Department of Psychology, Columbia University Catherine H. Tinsley, McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University George Tita, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine Cherie Chauvin, Study Director Robert Pool, Rapporteur Renée L. Wilson Gaines, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION William S. Marras (Chair), Integrated Systems Engineering Department, Ohio State University Pascale Carayon, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement, University of Wisconsin–Madison Don Chaffin, Industrial and Operations Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan (Emeritus) Nancy J. Cooke, Cognitive Science and Engineering, Arizona State University Mary (Missy) Cummings, Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sara J. Czaja, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Andrew S. Imada, A.S. Imada and Associates Waldemar Karwowski, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida David Rempel, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Matthew Rizzo, Department of Neurology, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and the Public Policy Center, University of Iowa Thomas B. Sheridan, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and of Aeronautics-Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Emeritus) David H. Wegman, University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Emeritus) Howard M. Weiss, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University Barbara A. Wanchisen, Director Mary Ellen O’Connell, Deputy Director Christie R. Jones, Program Associate vi

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Acknowledgments T his workshop summary is based on the discussions at a workshop convened by the Board on Human-Systems Integration on August 16-17, 2010, and organized by the Planning Committee on Unifying Social Frameworks. The planning committee members identified present- ers, organized the agenda, selected paper authors, and facilitated the discussion, although they did not participate in the writing of this report. This summary reflects their diligent efforts, the excellent presentations by other experts at the workshop, and the insightful comments of the many workshop participants. This study was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, and the committee is grateful for the interest and support of two of its program officers: Captain Dylan Schmorrow, Medical Service Corps, U.S. Navy, and acting director, Human Performance, Training, and BioSystems Direc- torate, Research Directorate, Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, Office of the Secretary of Defense; and Ivy Estabrooke, pro- gram officer, Human Social Cultural and Behavioral Sciences, Office of Naval Research, and assistant director, Human Social, Culture, Behavior Technologies Human Performance, Training, and BioSystems Directorate, Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, Office of the Secretary of Defense. The committee is grateful for their support through- out the study as well as their assistance in locating critical information in support of the committee’s planning efforts. This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pub- lished summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this summary: Noshir Contractor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sci- ences, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, North- western University; Waldemar Karwowksi, Department of Industrial and Management Systems, University of Central Florida; and Carol Mathews, Behavioral Sciences, Sociology, Century College, White Bear Lake, MN. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the summary, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by William C. Howell, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University and Rice University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this sum- mary rests entirely with the author and the institution. Prior to the publication of this report, one distinguished workshop presenter, Brant Burleson of Purdue University, passed away. His exper- tise and eloquent presentation on social support and influence were valu- able and appreciated contributions to the workshop. On behalf of the workshop participants, the National Research Council staff wishes to express their gratitude to Dr. Burleson for his support of the workshop and its objectives despite his own personal battles.

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Two Themes 2 Workshop and Report Organization 6 2 THE SITUATION IN AFGHANISTAN 9 The Importance of Cultural Awareness 9 Ways in Which the Military Takes Sociocultural Factors into Account 10 Dealing with Information 12 Lessons 14 3 THE CONFLICT ENVIRONMENT 17 Mapping the Dark Web 18 Identifying Core Offenders 23 Is It Time to Establish a Discipline of Sociocultural Intelligence? 30 4 COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS 35 Models of Cooperative Behavior 36 Four Forms of Social Relationships 40 Cultural Discourses 43 5 NATION BUILDING 49 Cross-Cultural Bridges 50 Culture and Attention 56 ix

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x CONTENTS 6 PERSUASION 61 Direct and Indirect Confrontation 62 The Power of Stories 65 Supportive Communication 69 7 MODELING SOCIOCULTURAL BEHAVIOR 73 Interpreting the Outputs of Modeling 74 How to Make Sense of Data 76 Meaning in Models 78 The Limits of Modeling 80 8 IMPLICATIONS 83 Workshop Themes 83 Lessons Learned 89 REFERENCES 91 APPENDIxES A Workshop Agenda and Participants 95 B Abstracts of Background Papers 105