to create computer simulations of complex systems. He has a B.S. in biology from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

James W. Pellegrino is liberal arts and sciences distinguished professor of cognitive psychology and distinguished professor of education at the University of Illinois, Chicago (UIC). He is codirector of UIC’s Learning Sciences Research Institute. His current work is focused on analyses of complex learning and instructional environments, including those incorporating powerful information technology tools, with the goal of better understanding the nature of student learning and the conditions that enhance deep understanding. A special concern of his research is the incorporation of effective formative assessment practices, assisted by technology, to maximize student learning and understanding. At the National Research Council, Pellegrino has served on the Board on Testing and Assessment and cochaired the Committee on the Cognitive Science Foundations for Assessment, which issued the report Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. He recently helped The College Board build frameworks for curriculum, assessment, and professional development in advanced placement biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science. He has a B.A. in psychology from Colgate University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Colorado.

Ray Perez oversees the Training & Education Technology Program and the Applied Instructional Research programs at the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR). At ONR, he manages a range of learning technology projects that include gaming, training, and simulations for military and educational purposes. The training projects are research based and include extensive use of computer technology, such as virtual reality, to provide realistic simulations and scenarios for U.S. naval forces. He has also been involved in the research, development, and implementation of specialized artificial intelligence techniques to emulate idealized instructors and tutors, or teammates and opponents. Some of his ONR work has involved collaborating with U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity schools. One recent program direction involves research on coaching strategies for fast-moving, dynamically evolving military tasks. He has a B.A. in psychology and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in educational psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Nichole Pinkard is visiting associate professor in the College of Computing and Digital Media at DePaul University. Previously, she was director of innovation for the University of Chicago’s Urban Education Institute, where she played a leading role in creating optimal learning environments that

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