ics in coastal oceans. In Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, Volume 2, Hall, H., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer (eds.). European Space Agency, Venice, Italy.

Boswell, R. and T. Collett. 2006. The gas hydrates resource pyramid. In Fire in the Ice: The Methane Hydrate Newsletter, Fall 2006. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

Bouma, M.J. and C. Dye. 1997. Cycles of malaria associated with El Nino in Venezuela. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(21):1772-1774.

Bouma, M.J. and H.J. van der Kaay. 1996. The El Niño Southern Oscillation and the historic malaria epidemics on the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka: An early warning system for future epidemics? Tropical Medicine and International Health 1(1):86-96.

Bowman, E.H. and G.T. Moskowitz. 2001. Real options analysis and strategic decision making. Organization Science 12(6):772-777.

Boyer, T.P., J.I. Antonov, H.E. Garcia, D.R. Johnson, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, M.T. Pitcher, O.K. Baranova, and I.V. Smolyar. 2006. World Ocean Database 2005. In NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60, Levitus, S. (ed.). National Oceanographic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Brander, K. 2010. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and marine capture fisheries production. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(5-6):416-421.

Brewer, P.G. and E.T. Peltzer. 2009. Limits to marine life. Science 324(5925):347-348.

Broecker, W.S. 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582-1588.

Brown, C.A., Y. Huot, M.J. Purcell, J.J. Cullen, and M.R. Lewis. 2004. Mapping coastal optical and biogeochemical variability using an autonomous underwater vehicle and a new bio-optical inversion algorithm. Limnology Oceanography Methods 2:262-281.

Bryden, H. L. and S. Imawaki. 2001. Ocean heat transport. In Ocean Circulation and Climate, Siedler, G., J. Church, and J. Gould (eds.). Academic Press, London, England, United Kingdom.

Burd, A.B., D.A. Hansell, D.K. Steinberg, T.R. Anderson, J. Arístegui, F. Baltar, S.R. Beaupré, K.O. Buesseler, F. DeHairs, G.A. Jackson, D.C. Kadko, R. Koppelmann, R.S. Lampitt, T. Nagata, T. Reinthaler, C. Robinson, B.H. Robison, C.T. and T. Tanaka. 2010. Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity: What the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets? Deep-Sea Research II 57(16):1429-1592.

Bush, V. 1945. Science the Endless Frontier. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Caldeira, K. and M.E. Wickett. 2003. Oceanography: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425(6956):1-365.

Camilli, R., C.M. Reddy, D.R. Yoerger, B.A.S. Van Mooy, M.V. Jakuba, J.C. Kinsey, C.P. McIntyre, S.P. Sylva, and J.V. Maloney. 2010. Tracking hydrocarbon plume transport and biodegration at Deepwater Horizon. Science 330:201-204.

Carlton J.T. and J.B. Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: The global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78-82.

CEQ (The White House Council on Environmental Quality). 2010. Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force. [Online]. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/OPTF_Final-Recs.pdf [2011, January 20].

Chadwick, Jr., W.W. and M. Stapp. 2002. A deep-sea observatory experiment using acoustic extensometers: Precise horizontal distance measurements across a mid-ocean ridge. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Special Issue on Ocean Observatories 27(2):193-201.

Chavez, F.P., M. Messié, and J.T. Pennington. 2011. Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change. Annual Review of Marine Science 3:227-260.

Christensen, C.M. 1997. The Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

Church, J.A., N.J. White, R. Coleman, K. Lambeck, and J.X. Mitrovica. 2004. Estimates of the regional distribution of sea level rise over the 1950-2000 period. Journal of Climate 17:2609-2625.

Clague, D., J.G. Moore, and A. Davis. 2002. Volcanic breccia and hyaloclastite in blocks from the Nuuanu and Wailau landslides, Hawaii. In Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives, Takahashi, E., P. Lipman, M. Garcia, J. Naka, and S. Aramaki (eds.). American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Clark, D.S., S. Gavaris, and J.M. Hinze. 2002. Assessment of Cod in Division 4X in 2002, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

CNA Corporation. 2007. National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. [Online]. Available: http://securityandclimate.cna.org/ [2010, December 7].

Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S. Tanner, F.P. Chavez, L. Ferioli, C. Sakamoto, P. Rogers, F. Millero, P. Steinberg, P. Nightingale, D. Cooper, W.P. Cochlan, M.R. Landry, J. Constantinou, G. Rollwagen, A. Trasvina, and R. Kudela. 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 383:495-501.

Cody, G.D., N.Z. Boctor, J.A. Brandes, T.R. Filley, R.M. Hazen, and H.S. Yoder, Jr. 2004. Assaying the catalytic potential of transition metal sulfides for abiotic carbon fixation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(10):2185-2196.

Copland, L., D. R. Mueller, and L. Weir. 2007. Rapid loss of the Ayles iceshelf, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 34(L21501):1-6.

Corliss, J.B., J.A. Baross, and S.E. Hoffman. 1981. An hypothesis concerning the relationship between submarine hot springs and the origin of life on earth. Oceanologica Acta 4:59-89.

Costa, D.P., J.M. Klinck, E.E. Hofmann, M.S. Dinniman, and J.M. Burns. 2008. Upper ocean variability in West Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf waters as measured using instrumented seals. Deep Sea Research Part II 55:323-337.

Costanza, R., R. D’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farberk, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.

Costa-Pierce, B.A. 1996. Environmental impacts of nutrients discharged from aquaculture: Towards the evolution of sustainable, ecological aquaculture systems. In Aquaculture and Water Resource Management, Baird, D.J., M.C.M. Beveridge, L.A. Kelly, and J.M. Muir (eds.). Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, United Kingdom.

Cowen, S., S. Briest, and J. Dombrowski. 1997. Underwater docking of an autonomous undersea vehicle using optical terminal guidance. In Proceedings of the MTS/IEEE OCEANS Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Crain, C.M., K. Kroeker, and B.S. Halpern. 2008. Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters 11(12):1304-1315.

Crimmins, D., P.C. Patty, M. Beliard, J. Baker, J. Jalbert, R. Komerska, S. Chappell, and D. Blidberg. 2006. Long-endurance test results of the solar-powered AUV system. In Proceedings of the MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2006 Boston Conference and Exhibition, Boston, Massachusetts. Marine Technology Society, Columbia, Maryland, and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

Cullen, J.J. and P.W. Boyd. 2008. Predicting and verifying the intended and unintended consequences of large-scale ocean iron fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364:295-301.

Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev. 2003. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426:826-829.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement