Eric J. Barron (Chair) is the president of Florida State University. Prior to this appointment he was the director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and before that he was dean of the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin. Before joining the University of Texas he served as dean of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Barron’s research interests are climatology, numerical modeling, and Earth history. During his career, he has worked diligently to promote the intersection of the geological sciences with the atmospheric sciences and the field of Earth system science. He has authored or coauthored more than 120 peer-reviewed papers in geology, oceanography, and climate. Dr. Barron chaired the Science Executive Committee for NASA’s Earth Observing System and NASA’s Earth Science and Applications Advisory Committee. He has also served as chair of the USGCRP Forum on Climate Modeling, the Allocation Panel for the Interagency Climate Simulation Laboratory, the U.S. National Committee for PAGES and the NSF Earth System History Panel. Dr. Barron has served on numerous NRC committees, and was a repeat member of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences, and has also served as chair and co-chair of the board. Dr. Barron is a fellow of GSA, AGU, AMS, and AAAS. In 2002, he was named a fellow of the National Institute for Environmental Science at Cambridge University. In 2003, he received the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. He received a B.S. in geology from Florida State University and an M.S. and Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Miami.
Rana Fine (Vice Chair) is a professor of marine and atmospheric chemistry at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). Her current research objective is to better understand the role of the oceans in climate change, occurring on time scales of up to decades. She is interested in the physical processes that determine the oceans’ capacity to take up atmospheric constituents such as carbon dioxide, especially through air-sea interactions and ocean mixing. She was the Elected President of the Ocean Sciences Section of the American Geophyscial Union from 1996 to 1998 and served on the WOCE Scientific Steering Committee. Dr. Fine is a former member of the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) and has served on several NRC committees related to oceanography; she recently served on the OSB Evolution of the National Oceanographic Research Fleet Committee. She is presently chair of the UCAR Board of Trustees. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Miami in 1975.
James Bellingham is Chief Technologist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. His personal research interests revolve around the development and use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). He has spent considerable time at sea, leading more than 20 AUV expeditions in locations such as the Antarctic, North Atlantic, Mediterranean, South Pacific, and the Arctic. At present he is developing a new class of long-endurance AUVs and associated control methodologies for biological process experiments. Dr. Bellingham founded the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and co-founded Bluefin Robotics Corporation, a leading manufacturer of AUVs for the military, commercial, and scientific markets. He presently serves on a number of advisory groups, including the Naval Research Advisory Committee and the Ocean X PRIZE. He has previously served on the Deep Submergence Science Committee, numerous NSF and Office of Naval Research (ONR) advisory groups, as well as several NRC committees related to oceanography and naval research. His honors and awards include the Lockheed Martin Award for Ocean Science and Engineering, WHOI Steinbach Visiting Scholar, and the Fourteenth MIT Robert Bruce Wallace Lecture. Dr. Bellingham earned his Ph.D. in physics from MIT in 1988.
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Appendix A Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE determine the oceans’ capacity to take up atmospheric con- stituents such as carbon dioxide, especially through air-sea Eric J. Barron (Chair) is the president of Florida State interactions and ocean mixing. She was the Elected President University. Prior to this appointment he was the director of of the Ocean Sciences Section of the American Geophyscial the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and before Union from 1996 to 1998 and served on the WOCE Scientific that he was dean of the Jackson School of Geosciences at the Steering Committee. Dr. Fine is a former member of the University of Texas at Austin. Before joining the University Ocean Studies Board (OSB) and has served on several NRC of Texas he served as dean of the College of Earth and Min- committees related to oceanography; she recently served on eral Sciences at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Barron’s the OSB Evolution of the National Oceanographic Research research interests are climatology, numerical modeling, and Fleet Committee. She is presently chair of the UCAR Board Earth history. During his career, he has worked diligently to of Trustees. She received her Ph.D. from the University of promote the intersection of the geological sciences with the Miami in 1975. atmospheric sciences and the field of Earth system science. He has authored or coauthored more than 120 peer-reviewed James Bellingham is Chief Technologist at the Monterey papers in geology, oceanography, and climate. Dr. Barron Bay Aquarium Research Institute. His personal research chaired the Science Executive Committee for NASA’s Earth interests revolve around the development and use of autono- Observing System and NASA’s Earth Science and Applica- mous underwater vehicles (AUVs). He has spent consider- tions Advisory Committee. He has also served as chair of able time at sea, leading more than 20 AUV expeditions in lo- the USGCRP Forum on Climate Modeling, the Allocation cations such as the Antarctic, North Atlantic, Mediterranean, Panel for the Interagency Climate Simulation Laboratory, South Pacific, and the Arctic. At present he is developing a the U.S. National Committee for PAGES and the NSF Earth new class of long-endurance AUVs and associated control System History Panel. Dr. Barron has served on numerous m ethodologies for biological process experiments. Dr. NRC committees, and was a repeat member of the Board Bellingham founded the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle on Atmospheric Sciences, and has also served as chair and Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology co-chair of the board. Dr. Barron is a fellow of GSA, AGU, (MIT) and co-founded Bluefin Robotics Corporation, a lead- AMS, and AAAS. In 2002, he was named a fellow of the ing manufacturer of AUVs for the military, commercial, and National Institute for Environmental Science at Cambridge scientific markets. He presently serves on a number of advi- University. In 2003, he received the NASA Distinguished sory groups, including the Naval Research Advisory Com- Public Service Medal. He received a B.S. in geology from mittee and the Ocean X PRIZE. He has previously served on Florida State University and an M.S. and Ph.D. in oceanog- the Deep Submergence Science Committee, numerous NSF raphy from the University of Miami. and Office of Naval Research (ONR) advisory groups, as well as several NRC committees related to oceanography and Rana Fine (Vice Chair) is a professor of marine and atmo- naval research. His honors and awards include the Lockheed spheric chemistry at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel Martin Award for Ocean Science and Engineering, WHOI School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). Her Steinbach Visiting Scholar, and the Fourteenth MIT Robert current research objective is to better understand the role of Bruce Wallace Lecture. Dr. Bellingham earned his Ph.D. in the oceans in climate change, occurring on time scales of up physics from MIT in 1988. to decades. She is interested in the physical processes that 77
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78 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 Emmanuel Boss is a professor at the School of Marine National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee from 2004 to Sciences, University of Maine. He is an aquatic physicist 2007 and on the NRC Committee on Designing an Arctic who uses and develops novel sensing techniques to study Observing Network. Dr. Edwards earned her Ph.D. in marine aquatic biogeochemistry. He has coauthored more than geology and geophysics from Columbia University in 1992. 60 peer-reviewed scientific papers and book chapters. Dr. Dr. Edwards most recently served on the NRC Committee Boss serves as co-chief-editor of Biogeosciences as well on Evolution of the National Oceanographic Research Fleet. as a member and external advisor to several national and international scientific committees and programs. Dr. Boss Kenneth S. Johnson is a senior scientist at the Monterey Bay received a B.S. in mathematics and physics with a minor in Aquarium Research Institute. Dr. Johnson was previously atmospheric sciences and an M.S. in oceanography from affiliated with the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories at San Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel. In 1997, he received Jose State University. His research interests are focused on a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. the development of new analytical methods for chemicals in Ed Boyle (NAS) is a professor of ocean geochemistry at the seawater and application of these tools to studies of chemi- cal cycling throughout the ocean. These methods have been Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests used in a variety of studies of metal cycling in the ocean, include a focus on ocean trace metal chemistry in relation including copper and iron metal speciation and oxidation. to biogeochemical cycling and anthropogenic inputs, and as He has also developed a variety of sensors and analyzers that a tool for understanding the geological history of the ocean. operate in situ to depths of 4,000 m, which have been used Dr. Boyle obtained some of the first valid data for several to study chemical species from deep-sea hydrothermal vent trace metals in the ocean (a field that had been plagued for systems to nitrate in coastal ponds surrounded by intensive decades by sample contamination and analytical problems). agricultural activities. He is a former chair of UNOLS, and For the past 25 years, he has been tracking the evolution of has numerous publications which are accompanied by many the anthropogenic Pb transient in the ocean, from its first honors in his field. Dr. Johnson has served on the NRC perceptible rise in the middle of the 19th century (based on Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science, the sediment and annually banded coral records) through the Marine Chemistry Study Panel, and the Committee on Ma- decrease due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. He has rine Environmental Monitoring. He received B.S. degrees in also worked on Pb and other anthropogenic trace metals chemistry and oceanography from the University of Wash- in Greenland ice cores and estuaries. Dr. Boyle discovered ington, in addition to a Ph.D. in oceanography from Oregon that Fe in the deep southwest Pacific derives from distant State University. hydrothermal vents. Additionally, he has shown that Cd in some species of benthic foraminifera tracks the Cd content Deborah Kelley is a professor at the University of Wash- of the bottom water they grow in, and has applied this finding ington’s School of Oceanography. She is a marine geolo- to sediment cores to trace past changes in ocean deepwater gist interested in understanding how submarine volcanoes chemistry which are influenced by changing ocean circula- and hydrothermal processes support life in the absence of tion patterns and changes in biogeochemical cycling within sunlight. She also has an interest in how the concentrations the ocean, including mechanisms that influence atmospheric and compositions of volcanic gases change as magmas deep carbon dioxide levels. He was the first to observe a predicted within the seafloor cool, and how these gases are transported response of deep Atlantic Ocean chemistry to abrupt climate to the seafloor. Field areas that her work is currently focus- change during the Younger Dryas event 12,900 years ago. ing on include the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Dr. Boyle received a B.A. in chemistry from the University Ridge, the accretionary margin off of Vancouver Island, and of California, San Diego, and a Ph.D. from the MIT/WHOI the Lost City hydrothermal field at 30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Joint Program in Oceanography. In 2008, Dr. Boyle was Ridge. Dr. Kelley also develops sensors for interdisciplin- elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences. ary studies of hydrothermal vents. She is the chair of the Margo Edwards is a senior research scientist and former UNOLS Deep Submergence Science Steering Committee, Co-Chair of the Replacement Oversight Committee for the director of the Hawaii Mapping Research Group with the new Alvin submersible, and has previously served on the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the Uni- RIDGE Executive committee. She is the Project Scientist versity of Hawaii at Manoa. Her current scientific research for the Regional Scale Nodes component of the NSF Ocean focuses on using mapping skills to search for disposed Observatories Initiative. Dr. Kelley received both a B.S. and military munitions (DMMs) south of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, an M.S. in geology from the University of Washington, and in water depths from 300 to 550 m. Dr. Edwards is part of a Ph.D. in geology from Dalhousie University. the Scientific Ice Expedition Science Advisory Committee, a collaborative project between the U.S. Navy and civilian Hauke Kite-Powell is a research specialist at the Marine scientists for geological and environmental research in the Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- Arctic Ocean. She has served as the Chair of the University-
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79 APPENDIX A Oscar Schofield is a professor at the Institute of Marine and tion. His research focuses on public- and private-sector management issues for marine resources and the economic Coastal Science at Rutgers University. His research interests activities that depend on them. His current research projects include environmental regulation of primary productivity in include the policy issues surrounding costs and benefits aquatic ecosystems, physiological ecology of phytoplankton, from improved ocean observing activities; use of ocean hydrological optics, and integrated ocean observatories. He space for nontraditional activities, such as wind power; and has been an active participant in the LEO-15 monitoring the economics and management of marine aquaculture op- site at the Rutgers Coastal Ocean Observation Lab. He is in- erations. Dr. Kite-Powell served on the NRC Committee on volved with the cyberinfrastructure component of the Ocean Assessment of Technical Issues in the Automated Nautical Observatories Initiative, the Integrated Ocean Observing Chart System, and is currently serving on the Committee on System, and works with the state of New Jersey on monitor- Best Practices for Shellfish Mariculture and the Effects of ing coastal water quality. Dr. Schofield serves as a member of Commercial Activities in Drake’s Estero, Pt. Reyes National the American Society of Limnologists and Oceanographers, Seashore, California. Dr. Kite-Powell earned his Ph.D. in Phycological Society of America, Oceanography Society, ocean systems management from MIT. and the American Geophysical Union. He is an author on over 100 peer-reviewed publications. He has been chief Steven Ramberg is a Distinguished Research Fellow at the scientist for almost a dozen research expeditions in addition Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the to numerous seasonal field expeditions and over 150 one- to National Defense University (NDU) on assignment from the two-day expeditions. Dr. Schofield has served on the NRC Applied Research Laboratory of Penn State University. At Committee on Implementation of a Seafloor Observatory NDU he occupies the Chief of Naval Research Chair. Dur- Network for Oceanographic Research. ing his career, he served as a fellow and as vice president Mario Tamburri is a research associate professor at the for Arete Associates; as the Director of the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) in LaSpezia, Italy; and as Direc- Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Mary- tor and Chief Scientist for ONR after joining ONR in 1988. land Center for Environmental Science, and the Executive His career at ONR also involved oversight of ocean, atmo- Director of the Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT). sphere, and space programs in basic research through applied His research interests include chemical ecology of aquatic programs including the Navy-owned research vessels in the organisms, nonnative species, larval settlement and recruit- academic fleet as well as inaugurating the National Ocean ment, and coastal sensor technologies. His current research Partnership Program (NOPP). Earlier, he worked at the Naval projects include working with stakeholders in the ocean tech- Research Laboratory, where he published over 60 unclassi- nology community to transition emerging technologies to fied papers in the archival literature on fluid dynamics of operational use rapidly and effectively; maintain a dialogue bluff bodies, nonlinear ocean waves, stratified wakes, turbu- among technology users, developers, and providers; identify lence near a free surface and related remote sensing topics. technology needs and novel technologies; document technol- ogy performance and potential; and provide the Integrated Daniel L. Rudnick is currently a professor at Scripps In- Ocean Observing System with information required for stitution of Oceanography. Dr. Rudnick is an observational the deployment of reliable and cost-effective networks. Dr. oceanographer whose research focuses on processes in the Tamburri received a B.S. from the University of California, upper ocean. Of particular interest are fronts and eddies, Santa Barbara, an M.S. from University of Alabama, and a air-sea interaction, the stirring and mixing of physical and Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina in biology and biological tracers, and the effect of oceanic structure on marine science. acoustic propagation. He is keenly interested in observa- Peter Wiebe is a scientist emeritus at Woods Hole Oceano- tional instrumentation, having been involved in the use and/ or development of moorings, towed and underway profilers, graphic Institution. His research interests include the quan- and autonomous underwater gliders, and has sailed on over titative population ecology of zooplankton with emphasis 25 oceanographic cruises, over half as chief scientist. His on zooplankton small-scale distribution and abundance, work has led to over 50 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. organic matter transport into the deep sea, the biology of Rudnick has served on various panels and committees for Gulf Stream Rings, zooplankton associated with deep-sea NSF, NOAA, and ONR. He was formerly the Deputy Di- hydrothermal vents, dynamics of populations on Georges rector of Education at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Bank and on the continental shelf region of the Western and he currently serves on the Ocean Studies Board and has Antarctic Peninsula, acoustical determination of zooplankton recently chaired an NRC committee (Oceanography in 2025: biomass, abundance, and size, and the census of holozoo- A Workshop). He earned his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1987 plankton biodiversity in the world’s oceans. He works with from Scripps Institution of Oceanography and his B.A. in the Census of Marine Life and U.S. GLOBEC, is involved physics at the University of California, San Diego. in instrumentation development to further studies of plank- ton, and has been a leader in the development and operation
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80 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 STAFF of a data management system for biological, physical, and chemical ocean data. He received a B.S. from North Arizona Deborah Glickson is a senior program officer with the University in zoology and mathematics and a Ph.D. from the Ocean Studies Board. She received an M.S. in geology from University of California, San Diego, in biological oceanog- Vanderbilt University in 1999 and a Ph.D. in oceanography raphy. Dr. Wiebe is a member of the American Association from the University of Washington in 2007. Her doctoral for the Advancement of Science (elected Fellow, May 1984), research focused on magmatic and tectonic contributions the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography, Phi to mid-ocean ridge evolution and hydrothermal activity at Kappa Phi, and the American Geophysical Union. He has the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. In 2008, served the NRC as a member of the Committee on Undersea she participated in the Dean John A. Knauss Marine Policy Vehicles and National Needs. Fellowship and worked on coastal and ocean policy and legislation in the U.S. Senate. Prior to her Ph.D. work, she Dawn J. Wright is a professor of geography in the Depart- was a research associate in physical oceanography at Woods ment of Geosciences at Oregon State University and holds an Hole Oceanographic Institution. Since joining the staff of adjunct professorship in the College of Oceanic and Atmo- the National Academies in 2008, she has worked on studies spheric Sciences. She has authored or coauthored more than including Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate 85 articles and 5 books on marine geographic information for the United States (2010), Science at Sea: Meeting Future systems, hydrothermal activity and tectonics of midocean Oceanographic Goals with a Robust Academic Research ridges, and marine data modeling and cyberinfrastructure. Fleet (2009) and Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Dr. Wright has participated in over 20 oceanographic re- Workshop (2009). search expeditions worldwide, including 10 legs of the Ocean Drilling Program and 3 dives in the Alvin submersible. Her Heather Chiarello was a senior program assistant with the research currently focuses on coastal/ocean cyberinfrastruc- Ocean Studies Board until September 2010. She graduated ture, geographic information science, benthic terrain and magna cum laude from Central Michigan University in 2007 habitat characterization, and the processing and interpreta - with a B.S. in political science and a concentration in public tion of high-resolution bathymetry and underwater videogra- administration. Ms. Chiarello joined the National Academies phy and photography. Dr. Wright was a member of the NRC in July 2008. She is currently a senior program assistant with OSB/Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) Com- the Committee on International Security and Arms Control mittee on National Needs in Coastal Mapping and Charting, in the Policy and Global Affairs Division of the Academies. and currently serves on the BESR Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade, Jeremy Justice is a senior program assistant with the Ocean as well as the BESR Standing Committee on Geophysical Studies Board. He earned a B.A. in international and area and Environmental Data. She currently serves on the NRC studies from the University of Oklahoma in 2008. Since Ocean Studies Board. Dr. Wright’s awards include an NSF joining the staff in October 2008, Mr. Justice has worked on CAREER award, a Fulbright to Ireland, the Raymond C. Science at Sea: Meeting Future Oceanographic Goals with Smith Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of a Robust Academic Research Fleet, Ecosystem Concepts for California at Santa Barbara, and the Oregon State University Sustainable Bivalve Mariculture, Assessment of Sea-Turtle Honors College Professor of the Year award. In 2007 she was Status and Trends, and Tsuanmi Warning and Preparedness: named U.S. Professor of the Year for the state of Oregon by An Assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program and the Nation’s the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Preparedness Efforts, in addition to this report. and the Council for the Advancement and Support of Edu- cation. She earned an individual interdisciplinary Ph.D. in Emily Oliver is a program assistant with the Ocean Studies physical geography and marine geology from the University Board. She graduated from Colgate University with Honors of California at Santa Barbara. in Geography in 2010. Ms. Oliver joined the Academies in October 2010.