Emmanuel Boss is a professor at the School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine. He is an aquatic physicist who uses and develops novel sensing techniques to study aquatic biogeochemistry. He has coauthored more than 60 peer-reviewed scientific papers and book chapters. Dr. Boss serves as co-chief-editor of Biogeosciences as well as a member and external advisor to several national and international scientific committees and programs. Dr. Boss received a B.S. in mathematics and physics with a minor in atmospheric sciences and an M.S. in oceanography from Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel. In 1997, he received a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington.

Ed Boyle (NAS) is a professor of ocean geochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include a focus on ocean trace metal chemistry in relation to biogeochemical cycling and anthropogenic inputs, and as a tool for understanding the geological history of the ocean. Dr. Boyle obtained some of the first valid data for several trace metals in the ocean (a field that had been plagued for decades by sample contamination and analytical problems). For the past 25 years, he has been tracking the evolution of the anthropogenic Pb transient in the ocean, from its first perceptible rise in the middle of the 19th century (based on sediment and annually banded coral records) through the decrease due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. He has also worked on Pb and other anthropogenic trace metals in Greenland ice cores and estuaries. Dr. Boyle discovered that Fe in the deep southwest Pacific derives from distant hydrothermal vents. Additionally, he has shown that Cd in some species of benthic foraminifera tracks the Cd content of the bottom water they grow in, and has applied this finding to sediment cores to trace past changes in ocean deepwater chemistry which are influenced by changing ocean circula­tion patterns and changes in biogeochemical cycling within the ocean, including mechanisms that influence atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. He was the first to observe a predicted response of deep Atlantic Ocean chemistry to abrupt climate change during the Younger Dryas event 12,900 years ago. Dr. Boyle received a B.A. in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego, and a Ph.D. from the MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography. In 2008, Dr. Boyle was elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Margo Edwards is a senior research scientist and former director of the Hawaii Mapping Research Group with the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the Uni­versity of Hawaii at Manoa. Her current scientific research focuses on using mapping skills to search for disposed military munitions (DMMs) south of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in water depths from 300 to 550 m. Dr. Edwards is part of the Scientific Ice Expedition Science Advisory Committee, a collaborative project between the U.S. Navy and civilian scientists for geological and environmental research in the Arctic Ocean. She has served as the Chair of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee from 2004 to 2007 and on the NRC Committee on Designing an Arctic Observing Network. Dr. Edwards earned her Ph.D. in marine geology and geophysics from Columbia University in 1992. Dr. Edwards most recently served on the NRC Committee on Evolution of the National Oceanographic Research Fleet.

Kenneth S. Johnson is a senior scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Dr. Johnson was previously affiliated with the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories at San Jose State University. His research interests are focused on the development of new analytical methods for chemicals in seawater and application of these tools to studies of chemi­cal cycling throughout the ocean. These methods have been used in a variety of studies of metal cycling in the ocean, including copper and iron metal speciation and oxidation. He has also developed a variety of sensors and analyzers that operate in situ to depths of 4,000 m, which have been used to study chemical species from deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems to nitrate in coastal ponds surrounded by intensive agricultural activities. He is a former chair of UNOLS, and has numerous publications which are accompanied by many honors in his field. Dr. Johnson has served on the NRC Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science, the Marine Chemistry Study Panel, and the Committee on Ma­rine Environmental Monitoring. He received B.S. degrees in chemistry and oceanography from the University of Wash­ington, in addition to a Ph.D. in oceanography from Oregon State University.

Deborah Kelley is a professor at the University of Wash­ington’s School of Oceanography. She is a marine geolo­gist interested in understanding how submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal processes support life in the absence of sunlight. She also has an interest in how the concentrations and compositions of volcanic gases change as magmas deep within the seafloor cool, and how these gases are transported to the seafloor. Field areas that her work is currently focus­ing on include the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the accretionary margin off of Vancouver Island, and the Lost City hydrothermal field at 30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Kelley also develops sensors for interdisciplin­ary studies of hydrothermal vents. She is the chair of the UNOLS Deep Submergence Science Steering Committee, Co-Chair of the Replacement Oversight Committee for the new Alvin submersible, and has previously served on the RIDGE Executive committee. She is the Project Scientist for the Regional Scale Nodes component of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative. Dr. Kelley received both a B.S. and an M.S. in geology from the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. in geology from Dalhousie University.

Hauke Kite-Powell is a research specialist at the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu­

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