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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure Strategy for U.S. Ocean Research in 2030 Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: the project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG02-09ER64727, the Environmental Protection Agency under contract number EP09H000821, the Food and Drug Administration under contract number HHSF22301002T, the Marine Mammal Commission under contract number E4047467, the Minerals Management Service under contract number M09PX00075, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant number NNX09AI86G, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences under contract number HHSN273200900082P, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number DG133R08CQ0062, the National Science Foundation under grant number OCE-0910762, the United States Arctic Research Commission, and the United States Geological Survey under grant number G09AP00034. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-18603-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-18603-X Cover: Artist’s rendering of possible technological innovations and ocean infrastructure assets that will be deployed in support of U.S. ocean research by 2030, based on presentations from the February 2-3, 2010, Ocean Infrastructure Strategy Workshop (illustration by E. Paul Oberlander, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 COMMITTEE ON AN OCEAN INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGY FOR U.S. OCEAN RESEARCH IN 2030 ERIC J. BARRON (Chair), Florida State University RANA A. FINE (Vice Chair), University of Miami, Florida JAMES G. BELLINGHAM, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California EMMANUEL S. BOSS, University of Maine EDWARD A. BOYLE (NAS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARGO EDWARDS, University of Hawaii at Manoa KENNETH S. JOHNSON, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California DEBORAH S. KELLEY, University of Washington HAUKE KITE-POWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts STEVEN RAMBERG, National Defense University/Pennsylvania State University DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California OSCAR M.E. SCHOFIELD, Rutgers University, New Jersey MARIO N. TAMBURRI, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science PETER H. WIEBE, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University Staff DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2010) JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant (from May 2011) EMILY OLIVER, Program Assistant (from October 2010 to May 2011) WILL TYBURCZY, Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow (Fall 2010)
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 OCEAN STUDIES BOARD DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska, Fairbanks JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Princeton University, New Jersey DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, California GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Washington ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Virginia DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer MARTHA MCCONNELL, Program Officer SHERRIE FORREST, Research Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meeting held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at meetings: Al Plueddemann (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Pete Barletto (University of Washington), John Delaney (University of Washington), Doug Toomey (University of Oregon), Gwyn Griffiths (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton), Tim Leach (The Glosten Associates), E. Paul Oberlander (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Guy Nordenson (Princeton University, Guy Nordenson and Associates), Ginger Armbrust (University of Washington), Deirdre Meldrum (Arizona State University), Elizabeth Kujawinski (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Bob Carlson (Honeywell), Dave Whelan (The Boeing Company), Tim Stanton (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Tom Weber (University of New Hampshire), Bob Hallberg (NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory), Shuyi Chen (University of Miami), Enrique Curchitser (Rutgers University), Peter Fox (Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute), Dan Fay (Microsoft), Berrian Moore (Climate Central), Dean Roemmich (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego), Vice Admiral Paul Gaffney (Monmouth University), Tom Kitsos (U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy), Peter Hill (Consortium for Ocean Leadership), Bert Semtner (Naval Postgraduate School), James Kendall (U.S. Minerals Management Service), Mel Briscoe (Consortium for Ocean Leadership), Amy Baco-Taylor (Florida State University), Gustav Paulay (University of Florida), Otis Brown (University of Miami), Mary Jane Perry (University of Maine), David Fries (University of South Florida), John Graybeal (University of California, Berkeley), and Sam McClatchie (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA). These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: Kendra Daly, University of South Florida, Tampa Clare Reimers, Oregon State University, Corvallis Melbourne Briscoe, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Washington, DC Mary Feeley, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas Jorg Imberger, University of Western Australia, Crawley Steven Gaines, University of California, Santa Barbara Dan Fornari, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Thomas Curtin, NATO Undersea Research Center, La Spezia, Italy Albert J. Plueddeman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Kristina Katsaros, NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, Washington Jack Sipress, Sipress Associates, Holmdel, New Jersey Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Christine Henderson, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and J. Brad Mooney, appointed by the Report Review Com-
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 mittee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 5 2 Major Research Questions in 2030 11 3 Ocean Infrastructure for 2030: Categories and Trends 25 4 Infrastructure Needs and Recommendations 41 5 Setting Priorities for Ocean Infrastructure Investments 53 6 Maximizing Research Investments in Ocean Science 57 References 65 Appendixes A Committee and Staff Biographies 77 B Speakers for Ocean Infrastructure Strategy Workshop, February 2-3, 2010 81 C 2010 Ocean Sciences Meeting Session on “Ocean Technology and Infrastructure Needs for the Next 20 Years”: List of Presenters 83 D Acronym List 87
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