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Toward an INTEGRATED SCIENCE OF RESEARCH ON FAMILIES WORKSHOP REPORT Steve Olson, Editor Committee on the Science of Research on Families Board on Children, Youth, and Families

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Award No. NO1-OD-4-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health, and the Administration for Children and Families. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-18627-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-18627-7 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). (2011). Toward an Integrated Science of Research on Families: Workshop Report. Committee on the Science of Research on Families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand- ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENCE OF RESEARCH ON FAMILIES Hirokazu Yoshikawa (Chair), Professor of Education, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University Jere R. Behrman, Professor, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania Margaret R. Burchinal, Research Professor and Director, Design and Statistical Computing Unit, University of North Carolina Linda Marie Burton, James B. Duke Professor of Sociology, Duke University Anne K. Duggan, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Research Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Barbara Fiese, Professor, Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Andrew Fuligni, Professor, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles Jane I. Guyer, Professor, Department of Anthropology, Johns Hopkins University Sara S. McLanahan, Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Princeton University Lisa Pearce, Associate Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina Sally I. Powers, Professor, Department of Psychology and Director, Center for Research on Families, University of Massachusetts Rosemary Chalk, Study Director Pamella Atayi, Senior Program Assistant Wendy Keenan, Program Associate Julienne Palbusa, Research Assistant Holly Rhodes, Consultant, Rhodes for Early Learning, LLC Steve Olson, Editor v

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Reviewers T his report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Commit- tee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institu- tional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dara R. Blachman, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics Elisabeth F. Maring, University of Maryland Extension Linda C. Mayes, Yale University Velma McBride Murry, Vanderbilt University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was over- seen by Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Columbia University. Appointed by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Demographic Perspectives on Family Change 7 3 Studying How Families Cope with Poverty and Economic Stress: The Role of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 27 4 Studying Family Processes in the Clinical and Prevention Sciences 45 5 Family Research Methods and Frameworks: Examples from the Study of Biomarkers, Child Health, and Econometric Methods 57 6 Strengthening Funding Opportunities and Training Models for the Future of Integrated Family Research Studies 73 7 Final Observations 85 References 89 Appendix: Workshop Agenda and Participants 95 ix

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