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References Adams, K.F., Schatzkin, A., Harris, T.B., Kipnis, V., Mouw, T., Ballard-Barbash, R., Hollenbeck, A., and Leitzmann, M.F. (2006). Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(8), 763–778. Ahlburg, D.A., and Vaupel, J.W. (1990). Alternative projection of the U.S. population. Demography, 27(4), 639–652. Alley, D.E., Lloyd, J., and Shardell, M. (2010). Can obesity account for cross-national differ- ences in life expectancy trends? In National Research Council, International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources (pp. 164–192). E.M. Crimmins, S.H. Preston, and B. Cohen (Eds.), Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries. Committee on Population. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Allison, D.B., Zannolli, R., and Narayan, K.M.V. (1999a). The direct health care costs of obesity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 89(8), 1194–1199. Allison, D.B., Fontaine, K.R., Manson, J.E., Stevens, J., and VanItallie, T.B. (1999b). Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(16), 1530–1538. American Cancer Society. (2009). Cancer Prevention Study Overviews. Available: http:// www.cancer.org/docroot/RES/content/RES_6_2_Study_Overviews.asp [accessed October 2, 2009]. American Heart Association. (2009). Cigarette Smoking and Cardiovascular Diseases. Avail- able: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4545 [accessed October 1, 2009]. Anderson, R.N. (1998). United States abridged life tables, 1996. National Vital Statistics Reports, 47(13). Anderson, R.N. (1999). United States life tables, 1997. National Vital Statistics Reports, 47(28). Anderson, R.N. (2001). United States life tables, 1998. National Vital Statistics Reports, 48(18). Anderson, R.N., and DeTurk, P.B. (2002). United States life tables, 1999. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(6). 154

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