on life expectancy relative to other countries: country-level differences in exposure to risk factors related to obesity (Chapter 3), physical activity (Chapter 4), and smoking (Chapter 5), as well as levels of social integration (Chapter 6); differences in health care systems, including differences in treatment regimes (Chapter 7); use of hormone therapy (Chapter 8); and socioeconomic inequality (Chapter 9). The panel did not pursue differences in alcohol consumption as a potential explanation for the U.S. disadvantage in life expectancy because the United States ranks low in per capita alcohol consumption among OECD countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2010). Moreover, the panel was unable to address some risk factors because comparable data for the countries of interest (e.g., composition of diet, environmental factors, and stress levels) were not sufficiently detailed to allow intensive investigation. Ultimately, all of these factors will need to be examined in an integrated framework across the entire life course, taking into account the effects of differences in behavioral risk factors, socioeconomic status, and social policy, as well as the effects across particular cohorts and periods.

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