Such guidance would include (1) methods for assessing the certainty of effectiveness (benefits and harms), and if a law or policy is effective, the magnitude of effect, for suitable populations; (2) methods for assessing the effectiveness of interventions (policies and programs) when used alone or in combination (i.e., their incremental and or synergistic benefits); and (3) priorities for and consideration of the contextual issues when determining whether (and where) to implement policies. The contextual issues to be considered include importance of the problem (severity, frequency, burden of disease, cost), feasibility (affordability, acceptability), availability of alternatives, demand, fairness (equity), preferences and values, cost-effectiveness, potential to advance other societal objectives, potential for harms, legal and ethical considerations, and administrative options.
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