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Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Clinton V. Oster, Jr. (Chair) is a professor at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. Previously, he served as director of the Transportation Research Center and as associate dean at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. His research focuses on air traffic management and aviation infrastructure, with an emphasis on aviation safety. His research also includes airline economics, airline competition policy, and energy policy. He has been a consultant to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, state and local governments, and private- sector companies in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia, and Australia. He is a member of the National Aviation Advisory Group of the U.S. Government Accountability Office, and he has been an expert witness for the Environment and Natural Resource Division and the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. He received a B.S.E. in chemical engineering from Princeton University, an M.S. in urban and public affairs from Carnegie Mellon University, and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Benjamin A. Berman is a senior research associate in the Human Systems Integration Division at the NASA Ames Research Center (affiliated through San Jose State University) and is a pilot for a major U.S. air carrier with 9,000 hours of flight experience. Before returning to professional flying in 2001, he was on the staff of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), where he served as the chief of the Major Investigations Division and E led the Operational Factors Division (responsible for flight operations, air traffic control, and meteorology investigations), served as the flight operations investigator for major cases including the USAir B-737 accident in Pittsburgh and the ValuJet DC-9 accident in the Everglades, and managed flight crew human factors research projects. He holds an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate with type ratings for the Boeing 777, Boeing 737, Embraer 120, and Dornier 228. He received an A.B. summa cum laude in economics from Harvard College. J. Lynn Caldwell is a senior research psychologist for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, currently stationed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. Previously, she was with the U.S. Army’s Aeromedical Research Laboratory, where she conducted numerous simulator and in-flight investigations on fatigue countermeasures and circadian rhythms in rated military pilots. She has also been a member of the Warfighter Fatigue Countermeasures Program and a distinguished visiting scholar at the U.S. Air Force Academy. She has served as a fatigue consultant for various U.S. Air Force commands and other military and civilian groups. She frequently provides fatigue management workshops, safety briefings, and training courses to aviation personnel, flight surgeons, commanders, and safety officers. She is certified as a sleep specialist by the American Board of Sleep Medicine. She received a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Southern Mississippi. David F. Dinges is a professor and chief of the Division of Sleep and Chronobiology and director of the Unit for Experimental Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and associate director of the Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. His research focuses on physiological, neurobehavioral, and cognitive 24
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effects of sleep loss, disturbances of circadian biology, and stress, and the implications of these unmitigated effects on health and safety. He currently leads the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. He has been president of the U.S. Sleep Research Society and of the World Federation of Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine Societies, and he has served on the board of directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the National Sleep Foundation. He is currently editor-in-chief of Sleep. His awards include the 2004 Decade of Behavior Research Award from the American Psychological Association and the 2007 NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. He has an A.B. in psychology from Saint Benedict’s College, a M.S. in physiological psychology from Saint Louis University, an honorary M.A. from the University of Pennsylvania, and a Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Saint Louis University. R. Curtis Graeber is the president of The Graeber Group, Ltd. Previously, he served as the chief engineer for human factors and director of regional safety programs at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and in other several management positions in research, airplane design, and safety. He also led Boeing’s efforts to improve regional safety, including industry development and implementation of the global aviation safety roadmap. Before joining Boeing, he led the flight crew fatigue research program at NASA’s Ames Research Center and served as chief of flight human factors. He also served as the human factors specialist for the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. He is a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and the Aerospace Medical Association. He has chaired working groups for the Federal Aviation Administration, the Flight Safety Foundation, and the International Civil Aviation Organization. His safety-related awards include the Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators’ Cumberbatch Trophy and the Aerospace Medical Association’s Boothby-Edwards Award. He serves as chair of Air New Zealand’s Independent Alertness Advisory Panel, and he is a member of the Board of Directors of the National Sleep Foundation. He received a Ph.D. in neuropsychology from the University of Virginia. John K. Lauber is a private consultant. Previously, he served as senior vice president and chief product safety officer for Airbus SAS in Toulouse, France, as vice president of safety and technical affairs for Airbus North America, and as vice president of training and human factors for Airbus Service Company. Prior to joining Airbus he was vice president of corporate safety and compliance at Delta Air Lines. Both Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush appointed him to terms as a member of the National Transportation Safety Board. He has served as chief of the Aeronautical Human Factors Research Office for NASA Ames Research Center, where he was instrumental in the development of advanced flight crew training concepts that are now used by airlines around the world. He is a commercial pilot, with both airplane and helicopter ratings and is type-rated in the B727 and the A320. His numerous awards include NASA’s Outstanding Leadership Award and the Boeing/Flight Safety Award for Lifetime Achievement in Aviation Safety He has served as president of the International Federation of Airworthiness and the Association for Aviation Psychology. He holds a Ph.D. degree in neuropsychology from Ohio State University (1969). David E. Meyer is a faculty member of the Cognition and Cognitive Neuroscience Program in the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan. Previously, he worked in the Human Information Processing Research Department at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. His 25
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teaching and his research have dealt with fundamental aspects of human perception, attention, learning, memory, language, movement production, reaction time, multitasking, executive mental control, human-computer interaction, personality and cognitive style, cognitive aging, cognitive neuroscience, mathematical models, and computational models. He is a fellow in the Society of Experimental Psychologists, the American Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The American Psychological Association has honored him with its Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. Mary Ellen O’Connell (Project Director) is deputy director for the National Research Council’s Board on Human-Systems Integration. At the NRC, she has served as study director for five major consensus studies: on prevention of mental disorders and substance abuse, international education and foreign languages, ethical considerations for research on housing-related health hazards involving children, reducing underage drinking, and assessing and improving children’s health. She also organized workshops on welfare reform and children and gun violence. Previously, she held various positions at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), including serving as director of state and local initiatives in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Her previous positions also include work on homeless policy and program design at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and as director of field services for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. She has a B.A. (with distinction) from Cornell University and a masters in the management of human services from the Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University. Matthew Rizzo is professor of neurology, engineering, and public policy at the University of Iowa. At the university, he is also vice chair for clinical/translational research and director of the division of neuroergonomics, its Visual Function Laboratory, and its instrumented vehicles in the Department of Neurology, as well as director of the University Institute for the Aging Mind. His clinical interests and activities include behavioral neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and memory disorders. His research interests include behavioral disturbances resulting from central nervous system injury, neural substrates of human vision (including attention and visuomotor control), aging and dementia, driving performance, and driving simulation. He has conducted research on fatigue and truckers for the National Institutes of Health and the Iowa Department of Transportation. Dr. Rizzo is a member of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Neurological Association, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Vision Sciences Society. Dr. Rizzo is a member of the NRC’s Board on Human-Systems Integration. He has an M.D. from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. David J. Schroeder is a private consultant. Previously, he was a manager of the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at the Civil Aero Medical Institute of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), where he also served as supervisor of clinical psychology research and was administrator of the FAA’s Employee Attitude Survey for 22 years. His research is documented in over 40 Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) technical reports and in more than 125 presentations in areas of interest such as disorientation, job attitudes, stress, age, shiftwork and fatigue, and color vision. He participated in numerous national human factors working 26
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groups and helped develop many international collaborative research projects. He also assisted with the psychological screening of federal air marshals during their post-9/11 hiring increase. He was the Office of Aviation Medicine Manager of the Year in 2005 and led his division to become the OAM Office of the Year in 1999 and 2005. He is past president of the Oklahoma Psychological Association, the APA Division of Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology, and the Aerospace Medical Association, and was a division representative to the APA Council for three years. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Oklahoma. Toby Warden (Study Director) is a program officer with the Board on Human-Systems Integration of the National Research Council (NRC). Previously, she worked as a program officer with the NRC’s Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of serving as study director for the projects that published Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts Over Decades to Millennia and When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs. She has nearly a decade’s worth of experience as a program manager and community organizer in the fields of public health and youth advocacy in Boston, Massachusetts. Her doctoral research applied quantitative and qualitative methodologies to examine the rise of the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement. She has a B.A. in history from the University of California at Irvine, where she graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa, and she has a Ph.D. in social ecology with an emphasis on environmental analysis and design, also from the University of California at Irvine. J. Frank Yates is an Arthur F. Thurnau professor, a professor of psychology, and a professor of marketing and business administration at the University of Michigan and a principal in the Psychology Department's Judgment and Decision Laboratory. He is also the coordinator of the Decision Consortium, which is a University of Michigan-wide association of faculty and students whose scholarship includes significant decision-making elements. The main focus of his research is on decision making, at both the theoretical and practical levels. That work has emphasized understanding how people decide in the challenging conditions of real life and developing means of assisting them to decide better in those circumstances. He is a past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making and is active in a variety of other efforts that are intended to advance decision scholarship, including efforts involving scholarly journals. He has been an active member of many government and other organizations, including the advisory panel of the National Science Foundation’s Decision, Risk, and Management Science Program. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. 27