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Issues in Commuting and Pilot Fatigue: Interim Report Committee on the Effects of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue Board on Human-Systems Integration Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Transportation Research Board
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. DTFAWA-10-C-00115 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Aviation Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number -13: 978-0-309-18712-1 International Standard Book Number -10: 0-309-18712-5 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2011). Issues in Commuting and Pilot Fatigue: Interim Report. Committee on Commuting and Pilot Fatigue, Board on Human-Systems Integration, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF COMMUTING ON PILOT FATIGUE Clinton V. Oster, Jr. (Chair), School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Benjamin A. Berman, Senior Research Associate, Ames Research Center, U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration J. Lynn Caldwell, Senior Research Psychologist, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio David F. Dinges, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine R. Curtis Graeber, The Graeber Group, Kirkland, Washington John K. Lauber, Independent Consultant, Vaughn, Washington David E. Meyer, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Matthew Rizzo, Department of Neurology, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and the Public Policy Center, University of Iowa David J. Schroeder, Independent Consultant J. Frank Yates, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Mary Ellen O’Connell, Project Director Toby Warden, Study Director Eric Chen, Senior Project Assistant Stephen Godwin, Liaison, Studies and Special Programs, Transportation Research Board v
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BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION William S. Marras (Chair), Integrated Systems Engineering Department, Ohio State University Pascale Carayon, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement, University of Wisconsin–Madison Don Chaffin, Industrial and Operations Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan (Emeritus) Nancy J. Cooke, Cognitive Science and Engineering, Arizona State University Mary (Missy) Cummings, Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sara J. Czaja, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Andrew S. Imada, A.S. Imada and Associates, Carmichael, California Waldemar Karwowski, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida David Rempel, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Matthew Rizzo, Department of Neurology, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and the Public Policy Center, University of Iowa Thomas B. Sheridan, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and of Aeronautics-Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Emeritus) David H. Wegman, Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Emeritus) Howard M. Weiss, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University Barbara A. Wanchisen, Director Mary Ellen O’Connell, Deputy Director Christie R. Jones, Program Associate vi
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Evan Byrne, Human Factors Group, National Transportation Safety Board; James C. Miller, Human Factors Consultant, San Antonio, Texas; Joseph P. Ornato, Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia; and Nita Lewis Shattuck, Human Systems Integration Program, Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Deborah A. Boehm-Davis, Psychology Department, George Mason University as review coordinator and Floyd E. Bloom, Molecular and Integrative Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute as review monitor. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee would also like to thank the individuals who provided presentations to the committee during this initial phase of the study; see Appendix B for the open agendas of the first two meetings. vii
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Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 3 2 Approach to Information Collection 5 3 Commuting in the Aviation Context 7 4 Prevalence of Commuting 8 5 Aviation Industry Characteristics That Impact Commuting 9 6 Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Fatigue 12 7 Current Regulatory Process 16 8 Next Steps 18 References 19 Appendixes A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 24 B Public Meeting Agendas 28 ix
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