ogy at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He is also a Professor in the Department of Medicine. He received his B.A. from Queens College, CUNY, and M.S., M.D., and Ph.D. degrees from New York University. His laboratory has a multidisciplinary research program spanning several areas of basic immunology and microbiology to address general questions in these areas, resulting in over 460 publications. His laboratory studies are focused on two microbes: the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, a ubiquitous environmental microbe that is a frequent cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals, and Bacillus anthracis, which is a major agent of biological warfare. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, to the American Association of Physicians, and as a fellow of AAAS. Dr. Casadevall has served on numerous NIH advisory committees including study sections, strategic planning for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the blue ribbon panel on response to bioterrorism. He currently cochairs the NIAID Board of Scientific Counselors and is a member of the NSABB. He is the founding editor of the first American Society of Microbiology (ASM) general journal, mBio, serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and has been the recipient of numerous awards, most recently the Solomon A. Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Basic Science-NYU School of Medicine 2005, IDSA Kass Lecturer in 2008, and the ASM William Hinton Award for mentoring scientists from underrepresented groups.

Nancy D. Connell is professor of medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-New Jersey Medical School. She is also director of the UMDNJ Center for BioDefense, which was established in 1999 for research into the detection and diagnosis of biological warfare agents and biodefense preparedness. Dr. Connell also is director of the Biosafety Level 3 Facility of UMDNJ’s Center for the Study of Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens and chairs the university’s Institutional Biosafety Committee. She is past chair of NIH’s Center for Scientific Review Study Section HIBP (Host Interactions with Bacterial Pathogens), which reviews bacterial pathogenesis submissions to NIAID. She is current chair of the F13 infectious diseases and microbiology fellowship panel. Dr. Connell’s involvement in biological weapons control began in 1984, when she was chair of the Committee on the Military Use of Biological Research, a subcommittee of the Council for Responsible Genetics, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She has worked with several international programs on dual use research issues and served on various NRC committees with her expertise in select agent microbiology, dual use, and biocontainment. Dr. Connell received her Ph.D. in microbial genetics from Harvard University. Her major research focus is the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the macrophage.

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