to let students know why inquiry and problem solving are important for their futures before suddenly requiring them to do things in biology courses that they have never before been asked to do. King referred to the phenomenon, discussed earlier in the day, of sharing exam questions with students, which she said can be a strong motivator to learn the required content.

Heidi Schweingruber asked about the relative emphasis in the disciplines on deep conceptual knowledge versus thinking about how students understand inquiry and the nature of science. Redish responded that, although there is strong agreement about the importance of conceptual knowledge, it is integrated differently into the different epistemologies of the disciplines. Wood added that teaching conceptual knowledge is relatively similar across the disciplines, but inquiry within each discipline is more specialized.

Responding to another question, Wood said that inquiry is probably not as much a tradition in the lower level courses as it should be. He explained that biologists teach more about facts because they think students have to know the facts before they can start thinking about inquiry. King added that, when she was pursuing a degree in geology, no one explicitly told her about the nature of knowledge and inquiry in geology. She suggested that it is important to help students better understand the nature of the discipline they are studying and the role of inquiry.



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