Such engagement can take a variety of forms: For example, DOE-EM could collaborate or partner with the DOE Office of Science and Office of Nuclear Energy to identify and, where appropriate, fill knowledge gaps on waste forms, waste form production, and waste form performance.3 International organizations and large-scale chemical processing industries are also potentially rich sources of information. DOE-EM is already engaging with other organizations for some of its technology development needs: Examples include the development of fluidized bed steam reforming and cold crucible induction melter technologies, which are discussed in Chapter 4. With carefully targeted investments, the costs of establishing and maintaining such collaborations need not be high.

As discussed in Chapter 8, DOE-EM is operating its cleanup program under various and sometimes conflicting regulatory requirements and legal agreements with states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Modifications of existing requirements or agreements might be necessary before DOE-EM can implement the technologies identified in this report. However, it is outside of the committee’s task to consider how the use of the technologies identified in this report might impact those requirements and agreements.


3 The Office of Science, for example, sponsors research needs workshops that are relevant to EM needs (see and The Office of Nuclear Energy sponsors a fuel cycle R&D program. See

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