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FIGURE 2.1 Locations of current sites in the DOE-EM cleanup program. Sites labeled as active have ongoing cleanup projects involving high-level waste/transuranic waste or low-level waste/mixed low-level waste.

SOURCE: DOE-EM: http://www.em.doe.gov/pages/siteslocations.aspx. Last accessed March 7, 2010.

efficiencies, reduced lifecycle costs and risks, and advanced scientific understanding of, and stakeholder confidence in, waste form behavior in different disposal environments (NRC, 2010).

2.1 BACKGROUND ON WASTE FORMS

The term waste form is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2003) as waste in its physical and chemical form after treatment and/or conditioning (resulting in a solid product) prior to packaging. The term is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards1 and in federal regulations2 as a radioactive waste material and

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1 For example, ASTM C-1174, C-1454, and C-1571; see Chapter 5.

2 Title 10, Part 60 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories; see Part 60.2.



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