improved waste forms, processing technologies, and computational capabilities. The reports include the following:

  • Summary Report of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Workshop, April 23-25, 1998 (see the report of working group #4). Available at http://www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/nerachWorkshop.pdf.
  • Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006 (see the panel #5 report on advanced waste forms). Available at http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/ANES_rpt.pdf.
  • Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems, February 21-23, 2007 (see sections related to subsurface geologic storage and modeling/simulation of geologic systems). Available at http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/GEO_rpt.pdf.
  • Basic Research Needs for Materials under Extreme Environments, June 11-13, 2007 (see section on nuclear energy). Available at http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/MUEE_rpt.pdf.
  • Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Integrated Waste Management Strategy Waste Treatment Baseline Study. GNEP-WAST-AI-RT-2007-00034. 2007 (see vol. 1 sections on processing and stabilization with different types of waste forms). Available at http://www.engconfintl.org/9arIWMS.pdf.
  • Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination, A Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, 2007 (see chapter 7 on designing new materials). Available at http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/GC_rpt.pdf.
  • Alternative Waste Forms: Aqueous Processing (Ryan et al., 2009).
  • Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste (Crum and Vienna, 2009).

Additionally, the recent National Research Council report Frontiers in Crystalline Matter from Discovery to Technology (NRC, 2009), which was sponsored in part by DOE, outlines an exciting agenda for the development of new materials for special applications. Although most of the examples in this report are for high-technology applications (e.g., microelectronics, superconductivity, and heterostructures), opportunities also exist for the development of new waste form materials.

The committee sees possible innovations developing from at least three directions:

  • New waste form materials designed for specific performance functions (e.g., high durability in specific disposal environments; com-


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