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TransporTaTion research Board 2011 execuTive commiTTee* Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Michael P Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence . Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010) Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, Virginia Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia (ex officio) Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O’Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (ex officio) Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (ex officio) Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California (ex officio) *Membership as of April 2011.

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SPECIAL REPORT 302 Federal Funding oF TransporTaTion improvemenTs in BraC Cases Committee for a Study on Federal Funding of Transportation Improvements in Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Cases Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Transportation Research Board Special Report 302 Subscriber Categories: Administration; finance; policy Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering indi- vidual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors accord- ing to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. Cover and inside design by Melanie Wilkins Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Federal funding of transportation improvements in BRAC cases / Committee for a Study on Federal Funding of Transportation Improvements in Base Realignment and Closure Cases, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-309-16081-0 1. United States. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission. 2. Military base closures—Economic aspects—United States. 3. Military base closures—Social aspects—United States. 4. Traffic congestion—Government policy—United States. 5. Traffic congestion—Economic aspects—United States. 6. Federal aid to transportation—United States. 7. Transportation, Military— United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee for a Study on Federal Funding of Transportation Improve- ments in Base Realignment and Closure Cases. UA26.A2F43 2011 354.76'2460973—dc22 2011004550

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of out- standing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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Committee for a study on Federal Funding of Transportation improvements in Base realignment and Closure (BraC) Cases Joseph M. Sussman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Chairman Thera Black, Thurston Regional Planning Council, Olympia, Washington Thomas B. Deen, Transportation Consultant, Stevensville, Maryland James R. Gosnell, West Coast Corridor Coalition, Los Angeles, California Max Inman, Mercator Advisors, Fairfax, Virginia Ashby Johnson, Houston–Galveston Area Council, Houston, Texas Fred Meurer, City of Monterey, Monterey, California Kevin Neels, The Brattle Group, Washington, D.C. George E. Schoener, I-95 Corridor Coalition, Celebration, Florida Randall Yim, Independent Consultant, Scottsville, Virginia Staff Edward Weiner, Consultant Stephen R. Godwin, Transportation Research Board

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preFaCe T he amendment to fiscal year 2010 defense appropriations by Senator Mark Warner requested a study by the National Academy of Sciences of federal funding of transportation improvements in Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC) cases. The amendment requires that the study cover the following tasks: 1. Examine case studies of congestion caused on metropolitan road and transit facilities when BRAC requirements cause shifts in personnel to occur faster than facilities can be improved through the usual state and local processes; 2. Review the criteria used by the Defense Access Roads (DAR) program for determining the eligibility of transportation projects and the appropriate Department of Defense (DoD) share of public highway and transit improvements in BRAC cases; 3. Assess the adequacy of current federal surface transportation and DoD programs that fund highway and transit improvements in BRAC cases to mitigate transportation impacts in urban areas with preexisting traffic congestion and saturated roads; 4. Identify promising approaches for funding road and transit improvements and streamlining transportation project approvals in BRAC cases; and 5. Provide recommendations for modifications of current policy for the DAR and Office of Economic Adjustment programs, including funding strategies, road capacity assessments, eligibility criteria, and other government policies and programs the National Academy of Sciences may identify to mitigate the impact of BRAC-related installation growth on preexisting urban congestion. In response to the congressional request, the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (TRB) convened a committee chaired by Joseph M. Sussman, JR East professor and professor of civil and environmental engineering and engineering systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The committee has expertise in transportation budgeting and policy, military budgeting and policy, infrastructure plan- ning, state and local infrastructure management, economics, and military facility planning (see Study Committee Biographical Information, p. 111). vii

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preFaCe To carry out this work, the committee met three times between April and December 2010. In examining case studies and gathering other information, the committee heard presentations from DoD, metropolitan planning organizations, state and local representatives, and base personnel. In carrying out its investigation of BRAC cases, the committee became aware of underlying issues at military bases that apparently affected BRAC 2005 decisions and continue to affect the ongoing relation- ships between military bases and their surrounding communities. The BRAC 2005 decisions have been made and, as of this writing, no further BRAC rounds are contemplated. The law authorizing BRAC will expire on September 30, 2011. The committee has recommendations that, if imple- mented, will ameliorate some of the most adverse transportation impacts of BRAC 2005, but its findings and recommendations about improved communication and collaborative planning between growing bases and surrounding communities will be helpful in the future even after current BRAC legislation expires. Some military bases will continue to experience growing pains, and those in built-up metropolitan areas will continue to confront transportation constraints in the civil sector. The committee’s findings and recommendations set the stage for better transportation outcomes for growing bases and their surrounding communities. Better information about civil sector transportation constraints in the BRAC 2005 round could have resulted in different decisions. Should there be another round of base consolidations, implementation of the committee’s recommendations will help ensure that decisions about military priorities are fully informed about adverse transportation impacts on surrounding communities as well as on the bases. As required in its charge, the committee makes recommendations to modify the DAR program to make it more effective. The committee finds the DAR criteria most in want with regard to bases in metropolitan areas, and its recommendations to change the criteria are meant to apply only to bases in metropolitan areas. However, the committee does not intend for the changes recommended for the DAR program to apply only in BRAC 2005 cases. aCknowledgmenTs The committee appreciates the contributions of a number of people who provided information that assisted in the preparation of this report: Mark Brunner, Senator Warner’s office; Dorothy Robyn, deputy under secretary of defense; Darryl Hampton, director, DoD DAR program; Timothy Canan, Washington Area Council of Governments, Transporta- tion Planning Board; Cord Sterling, member of Virginia’s Commonwealth viii

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preFaCe Transportation Board and the Stafford County Board of Supervisors; Andrew Scott, special assistant to the secretary, Maryland Department of Transportation; Colonel Mark Moffatt, deputy garrison commander for BRAC, Fort Belvoir, Va.; Jim Turkel, chief, BRAC Integration Office, Mark Center, Va.; Al Miller, transportation demand management coordinator, National Geospatial Agency; Bert Rice, BRAC project office, Fort Meade, Md.; Jeff Miller, transportation program manager, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Md.; Dan Penrose, project manager, Office of Economic Adjustment Grants, Economic Development, City of Lakewood, Wash.; Craig Helmann, technical services manager, Urban Planning Office, Washington Department of Transportation; Steven Perrenot, director of public works, Joint Base Lewis–McChord; Patrick O’Brien, director, DoD Office of Economic Adjustment; Cyrena Eitler, lead and program manager, Compatible Use Program, DoD Office of Economic Adjustment; and Ronald Kirby, director of transportation planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. The report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. Thanks go to the following individuals for their review of the report: Major General Del Eulberg (ret.), Booz Allen; David H. Morrison, the Boeing Company; Barry Seymour, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission; Robert L. Sack, New York Department of Transportation; Martin Wachs, RAND Corporation; Tom Clark, Metro-Denver Economic Development. Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the committee’s findings or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by National Academy of Engineering members A. Ray Chamberlain, retired, and C. Michael Walton, University of Texas, Austin. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and institution. ix

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preFaCe Edward Weiner served as a consultant to the committee and pre- pared the report under the guidance of the committee and supervision of Stephen Godwin, Director of Studies and Special Programs. Weiner also prepared Appendix A. Suzanne Schneider, Associate Executive Director of TRB, managed the report review process. The report was edited by Cay Butler; Rona Briere provided valuable editorial direction for the chapter of case studies; Janet M. McNaughton handled the editorial production; Melanie Wilkins assembled the maps for the case studies; Juanita Green managed production; and Jennifer J. Weeks prepared the manuscript for prepublication web posting under the supervision of Javy Awan, Director of Publications, TRB. Special appreciation is expressed to Amelia Mathis for assistance with meeting arrangements and communications with the committee. x

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ConTenTs exeCuTive summary ..............................................................................................1 1 inTroduCTion ....................................................................................................5 Organization of the Report ..................................................................... 9 2 Case sTudies....................................................................................................11 National Capital Region ....................................................................... 11 Joint Base Lewis–McChord, Washington State...................................... 31 Eglin Air Force Base, Florida ................................................................ 36 Fort Bliss, Texas ................................................................................... 40 Conclusions ......................................................................................... 43 3 planning and deCision-making proCesses ................................................ 47 Metropolitan Transportation-Planning Process ..................................... 47 Military Base Planning and Budgeting Process ...................................... 49 Implications for BRAC 2005 Decisions................................................. 50 Conclusions and Looking Forward ...................................................... 51 4 Funding opTions .............................................................................................55 Department of Defense Programs ......................................................... 55 Non-DoD Transportation Programs ...................................................... 66 Conclusions ......................................................................................... 76 5 Findings and reCommendaTions .................................................................. 81 Nature of the Problem .......................................................................... 81 Institutional Misalignment ................................................................... 83 Nature of Required Solutions ............................................................... 88 Funding ............................................................................................... 89 appendiCes a Background PaPer on ImPact Fees .............................................................. 97 B IllustratIve examPle oF ImPact Fee calculatIon For exPansIon oF mIlItary Bases ...................................................................................109 sTudy CommiTTee BiographiCal inFormaTion .............................................. 111

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