M

Summary of Literature Estimates

Appendix Table M-1 Ethanol Production Research Estimates

Type of Cost Assumption Value cited Value in 2007 Reference
Oil price $60/barrel Elobeid et al. (2006)
Ethanol price Analysis range $1.50-$3.50/gal Lambert and Middleton (2010)
Minimum for industry development $1.70/gal
Historical trend Poil/29 Elobeid et al. (2006)
Energy equivalent factor (EV) 0.667 Elobeid et al. (2006)
0.667 Tokgoz et al. (2007)
Tax credit Corn $0.45/gal $0.45/gal 2008 Farm Bill
Cellulosic $1.01/gal $1.01/gal 2008 Farm Bill
Byproduct credit Cellulosic $0.14-0.21/gal* Aden et al. (2002)
$0.16/gal* Khanna and Dhungana (2007)
2.61 kWh/gal Aden (2008)
$0.12/gal** Khanna (2008)
Rank from low to high excess electricity Aspen wood Corn stover Poplar Switchgrass Huang et al. (2009)
Corn $0.48/gal Khanna (2008)


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M Summary of Literature Estimates Appendix Table M-1 Ethanol Production Research Estimates Type of Cost Assumption Value cited Value in 2007 Reference Oil price $60/barrel Elobeid et al. (2006) Ethanol price Analysis range $1.50-$3.50/gal Lambert and Middleton (2010) Minimum $1.70/gal for industry development Historical trend Poil/29 Elobeid et al. (2006) Energy equivalent 0.667 Elobeid et al. (2006) factor (EV) 0.667 Tokgoz et al. (2007) Tax credit Corn $0.45/gal $0.45/gal 2008 Farm Bill Cellulosic $1.01/gal $1.01/gal 2008 Farm Bill Byproduct credit Cellulosic $0.14-0.21/gal* Aden et al. (2002) $0.16/gal* Khanna and Dhungana (2007) 2.61 kWh/gal Aden (2008) $0.12/gal** Khanna (2008) Rank from low Aspen wood Huang et al. (2009) to high excess Corn stover electricity Poplar Switchgrass Corn $0.48/gal Khanna (2008) continued 355

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356 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-1 Continued Type of Cost Assumption Value cited Value in 2007 Reference Investment cost 69.3 MMGY $197.4 million Aden et al. (2002) (Cellulosic 55.5 MMGY $231.7 million $231.7 million Aden (2008) biorefineries) 50 MMGY $294 million Wright and Brown (2007) 100 MMGY $400 million Taheripour and Tyner (2008) Stover (69.6) $202.2 million Huang et al. (2009) $0.501 Switchgrass (64) (0.46/gal if 10-10) $212.1 million Hybrid poplar (68) (0.53/gal if 10-10) $0.58 $203.3 million Aspen wood (86) (0.50/gal if 10-10) $0.545 $187 million (0.34/gal if 10-10) $0.37 $0.55/gallon $0.55/gal Jiang and Swinton (2008) Other costs Partial variable $0.11/gal Aden et al. (2002) costs “Other” costs $0.11/gal Aden et al. (2002) Total non- $1.48/gal Chen et al. (2010) feedstock costs Enzyme cost $0.07-0.20/gal Aden et al. (2002) $0.32/gal $0.32/gal Aden (2008) 2012 target $0.10/gal Aden (2008) $0.14-0.18/gal Bothast (2005) $0.18/gal Jha et al. (Presentation) $0.40-$1.00/gal $0.40-$1.00/gal Industry Source $0.10-0.25/gal Tiffany et al. (2006) $1.42/gal2 Operating costs Stover $1.58/gal Huang et al. (2009) Switchgrass (crop) $1.73/gal $1.92/gal Switchgrass (grass) $1.86/gal $2.06/gal Hybrid poplar $1.83/gal $2.03/gal Aspen wood $1.56/gal $1.73/gal $1.10/gal $1.10/gal Jiang and Swinton (2008) Ethanol yield Stover 87.9 Aden et al. (2002) (Gal/dry ton) Stover (current) 71.9 Aden (2008) Stover (theoretical) 112.7 Aden (2008) Stover (2012 90 Aden (2008) target) Stover 79.2 Khanna and Dhungana Switchgrass (2007) Miscanthus (Nth generation plant)

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357 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-1 Continued Type of Cost Assumption Value cited Value in 2007 Reference Stover 72 McAloon et al. (2000) Stover 70 gal/raw ton Tokgoz et al. (2007) Stover 70 Petrolia (2008) Stover 96 Comis (2006) Switchgrass 60-140 Crooks (2006) (range) Switchgrass 80-90 (typical) Stover 80 Perlack and Turhollow (2002) Stover 79.2 Khanna (2008) Miscanthus Switchgrass (Nth generation plant) Switchgrass 80-90 BRDI (2008) Switchgrass 110 (theoretical) Woody 89.5 80-120 Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) Stover (base) 67.8 Tiffany et al. (2006) Stover (future) 89.7 Stover 89.8 Huang et al. (2009) Switchgrass 82.7 Hybrid poplar 88.2 Aspen wood 111.4 Switchgrass 54.4 Jiang and Swinton (2008) Stover Cellulosic 79 Chen et al. (2010) (Nth plant) Stover (current) 67.4 Sheehan et al. (2003) Stover (projected) 89.8 Stover (current) 79.2 Wallace et al. (2005) Stover (theoretical) 107 Optimal plant size Cellulosic 2,294-4,408 Huang et al. (2009) Online days 350 Aden et al. (2002) 350 Huang et al. (2009) 1 Updatedusing building materials price index. 2 Updatedusing machinery price index. *Updated using EIA (2008). **Not updated since author did not provide year of estimate.

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358 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-2 Harvest and Maintenance1 Cited Cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Corn stover Baling, stacking and 26 45 Hess et al. (2007) grinding Corn stover Collection 31-36 66-77 McAloon et al. (2000) Corn stover Collection 35-46 64-84 McAloon et al. (2000) Corn stover Collection 17.70 17.70 Perlack (2007) Presentation Corn stover Up to Storage 20-21 36-39 Sokhansanj and Turhollow (2002) Corn stover 28 36 Suzuki (2006) Corn stover Baling and staging 26 47 Aden et al. (2002) Corn stover Harvest 14 14 Edwards (2007) Corn stover Custom Harvest Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) Bale 7.47 7.47 Rake and Bale 8.84 8.84 Shred, Rake, and 10.70 10.70 Bale Corn stover Harvest 35.41-36.58 35.41-36.58 Khanna (2008) Corn stover Combine, Shred, Bale 19.16 24.33 Haung et al. (2009) and Stack Corn stover Harvest and Bale 7.26 7.26 Lamert and Middleton (2010) Corn stover Harvest cost 19.6 36 Jiang and Swinton (2008) Corn stover or Move to fieldside 2 2 Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) Switchgrass Switchgrass Collection 12-22 16-28 Kumar and Sokhansanj (2007) Switchgrass Harvest 32 32 Duffy (2007) Switchgrass Harvest 35 58 Khanna et al. (2008) Switchgrass Harvest, 123.5/acre 210/acre Khanna and Dhungana maintenance and (2007) establishment Switchgrass Harvest 15 26 Perrin et al. (2008) Switchgrass Custom Harvest Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) Bale 2.01 2.01 Rake and Bale 3.09 3.09 Shred, Rake and 4.79 4.79 Bale Switchgrass Harvest 27.8-34.72 27.8-34.72 Khanna (2008) Switchgrass` Harvest (square 21.86 27.8 Huang et al. (2009) bales) 9.36/acre2 Switchgrass Weed control 9.36/acre University of Tennessee switchgrass budget (2008)

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359 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-2 Continued Cited Cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Mow, rake, bale, 242.92/acre 242.92/acre equipment, repair, interest, operating capital Switchgrass Maintenance and Mooney et al. (2009) fertilization 0 lb N/acre 17.23/acre 17.23/acre 60 lb N/acre 46.5/acre 46.5/acre 120 lb N/acre 72.7/acre 72.7/acre 180 lb N/acre 99/acre 99/acre Switchgrass Harvest cost Mooney et al. (2009) (function of yield) 7.7 tons/acre 200/acre 200/acre 12.5 tons/acre 311.85/acre 311.85/acre 2.4 tons/acre 79/acre 79/acre 7.2 tons/acre 190/acre 190/acre Switchgrass Total production cost 54.4 54.4 Jiang and Swinton (2008) Prairie grasses Harvest 17.7-19.3 Tiffany et al. (2006) (include switchgrass) Harvest 33 54 Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus Harvest, 301/acre 512/acre Khanna and Dhungana Miscanthus maintenance, and (2007) establishment Harvest 18.72-32.65 18.72-32.65 Khanna (2008) Miscanthus Straw Harvest and bale 7.26 7.26 Lamert and Middleton (2010) Nonspecific 10-30 15-45 Mapemba et al. (2007) Nonspecific 23 38 Mapemba et al. (2008) Hybrid poplar and Logging cost Huang et al. (2009) Aspen wood Range 14-28 17.8-34.6 Assumed 14.5 18.4 Chipping cost Range 12-27 15.2-34.3 Assumed 12.7 16.1 (Minnesota) Aspen wood Stumpage 51.9 66 Huang et al. (2009) 35-873 Woody biomass Cut and extract to USFS (2003, 2005) roadside Woody biomass Roadside 40-46 40-46 BRDI (2008) Woody biomass Stumpage 4 4 BRDI (2008) Short-rotation Harvest/collection 17-29/acre 17-29/acre BRDI (2008) woody continued

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360 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-2 Continued Cited Cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Woody (slash) Collect and transport 24.32/Gt 24.32/Gt Han et al. (2010) 2.8 m 31.17/Dt 31.17/Dt Woody biomass Up to roadside and 25/Dt 25/Dt* Sohngen et al. (2010) on truck Woody biomass Up to roadside and 34/Dt 34/Dt (2009$) Sohngen et al. (2010) on truck (high) Delivered cost range 34-65 34-65 (2009$) 30-504 Woody biomass Up to roadside 30-50 Jenkins et al. (2009) Woody residues Delivered cost West 56/GMT 86/Dt* (2008$) Spelter and Toth (2009) North 49/GMT 75/Dt* (2008$) Spelter and Toth (2009) South 42/GMT 66/Dt* (2008$) Spelter and Toth (2009) Northeast 38/GMT 58/Dt* (2008$) Spelter and Toth (2009) 1 Harvest and maintenance costs were updated using USDA-NASS agricultural fuel, machinery, and labor prices from 1999-2007 (USDA-NASS, 2007a,b). 2 Values are in 2008$. 3 Price not updated. 4 This value was based on a summary of the literature and therefore does not have a relevant year for cost. *Assume a conversion of 0.59 for green tons to dry tons. Appendix Table M-3 Nutrient and Replacement1 Cited Cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Corn stover 10.2 14.1 Hoskinson et al. (2007) Corn stover 4.6 8.4 Khanna and Dhungana (2007) Corn stover 7 14.4 Aden et al. (2002) Corn stover 4.2 4.2 Petrolia (2008) Corn stover 10 21 Perlack and Turhollow (2003) 6.4-12.22 Corn stover Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) Corn stover Whole plant harvest 9.7 13.3 Karlen and Birrell (2007) Corn stover Cob and top 50% 9.5 13.1 Karlen and Birrell (2007) harvest Corn stover Bottom 50% harvest 10.1 13.9 Karlen and Birrell (2007) Corn stover 15.64 15.64 Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) Corn stover 7.26 10 Huang et al. (2009) Corn stover 6.5 13.7 Jiang and Swinton (2008) Corn stover Replace N, P, K 21.70 21.70 (2009$) Karlen (2010)

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361 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-3 Continued Cited Cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Corn stover or Straw 11.13 15.40 Lambert and Middleton (2010) Switchgrass 6.7 12.1 Perrin et al. (2008) Switchgrass 10.8 19.77 Khanna et al. (2008) 83.86/acre3 Switchgrass Fertilizer, equipment, 83.86/acre University of Tennessee labor (2008) 2.5 4.6 Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus 4.20 7.73 Cost using average Miscanthus fertilizer rates from literature summarized in Khanna et al. (2008) and updated Khanna et al. (2008) costs 1 Nutrient and replacement costs were updated using USDA-NASS agricultural fertilizer prices from 1999-2007 (USDA-NASS, 2007a,b). 2 Price not updated. 3 Value in 2008$. Appendix Table M-4 Distance Distance (miles) Type Reference 46-134 Round-trip Mapemba et al. (2007) 22-62 One-way Perlack and Turhollow (2003) 22-61 One-way Perlack and Turhollow (2002) 50 Round-trip Khanna et al. (2008) 50 One-way max English et al. (2006) 50 One-way Vadas et al. (2008) 100 One-way (wood) USFS (2003, 2005) 10-50 One-way Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) 5-50 One-way Brechbill and Tyner (2008a,b) 16.6-47 One-way average Perlack and Turhollow (2002) 50 One-way max Taheripour and Tyner (2008) 75 One-way max BRDI (2008) 50 One-way Tiffany et al. (2006) 83 One-way (wood) Sohngen et al. (2010) 46-138 One-way range (wood) Sohngen et al. (2010) 50 One-way (wood) Spelter and Toth (2009)

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362 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-5 Transportation Cost1 Type of Feedstock Type of Cost Cost cited ($) Cost (2007$) Reference Corn stover Per ton 8.85 12.5 English et al. (2006) Corn stover Per ton 10.25 27 Hess et al. (2007) DVC2 Corn stover 0.15 0.35 Kaylen et al. (2000) Corn stover Max DVC for 0.28 0.66 Kaylen et al. (2000) positive NPV Corn stover Per ton 10.8 10.8 Perlack (2007) Corn stover Per ton 13 31 Aden et al. (2002) Corn stover Per ton 4.2-10.5 11-27.7 Perlack and Turhollow (2002) Corn stover DVC 0.08-0.29 0.17-0.63 Kumar et al. (2005) DFC3 4.5 9.8 DFC range 0-6 0-13.3 Corn stover DVC 0.18 0.32 Searcy et al. (2007) DFC 4 7.3 Corn stover DVC 0.16 0.38 Kumar et al. (2003) DFC 3.6 8.6 Corn stover 10 miles 3.4 Atchison and Hettenhaus 15 miles 5.1 (2003) 30 miles 10.2 40 miles 13.5 174 50 miles Corn stover DVC Petrolia (2008) 0-25 miles 0.13-0.23 0.13-0.23 25-100 miles 0.10-0.19 0.10-0.19 >100 miles 0.09-0.16 0.09-0.16 DFC square bales 1.70 1.70 DFC round bales 3.10 3.10 Corn stover Per ton 10.9 13.8 Vadas et al. (2008) Corn stover DFC 6.9 9.71 Huang et al. (2009) DVC 0.16 0.23 Corn stover or Average DVC 0.20 0.20 Brechbill and Tyner Switchgrass (2008a,b) Corn stover or Custom loading 1.15 1.15 Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) Switchgrass Custom DVC 0.28 0.28 Owned DVC 0.12 0.12 Custom per ton 10 miles 3.92 3.92 20 miles 6.69 6.69 30 miles 9.46 9.46 40 miles 12.23 12.23 50 miles 15 15 Corn stover Own equipment Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) (per ton) 3.31-6.185 10 miles 3.31-6.18 20 miles 4.65-7.52 4.65-7.52 30 miles 5.99-8.86 5.99-8.86 40 miles 7.33-7.71 7.33-7.71 50 miles 8.67-9.05 8.67-9.05

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363 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-5 Continued Type of Feedstock Type of Cost Cost cited ($) Cost (2007$) Reference Switchgrass Own equipment Brechbill and Tyner (2008a) (per ton) 3.13-3.936 10 miles 3.13-3.93 20 miles 4.47-5.27 4.47-5.27 30 miles 5.81-6.61 5.81-6.61 40 miles 7.15-7.95 7.15-7.95 50 miles 8.49-9.29 8.49-9.29 Switchgrass Per ton 14.75 14.75 Duffy (2007) Switchgrass Per ton 19.2-23 27-32.4 Kumar and Sokhansanj (2007) Switchgrass Per ton 13 28 Perrin et al. (2008) Switchgrass Per ton 10.9 13.8 Vadas et al. (2008) Switchgrass DFC 3.39 4.78 Huang et al. (2009) DVC 0.16 0.23 Switchgrass Stage and load 19.15/acre 19.15/acre (2008$) UT (2008) 47 Native prairie Per ton Tiffany et al. (2006) (include switchgrass) Switchgrass or Per ton for 50 miles 7.9 17.1 Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus Nonspecific Per ton 7.4-19.3 13.7-35.6 Mapemba et al. (2007) Nonspecific Per ton 14.5 31.5 Mapemba et al. (2008) Hybrid poplar and DFC 4.13 5.8 Huang et al. (2009) Aspen wood DVC 0.16 0.23 Woody biomass Per ton 11-22 11-22 Summit Ridge Investments (2007) Woody biomass DVC 0.2-0.6 USFS (2003, 2005) Used 0.358 Woody biomass DVC 0.22 0.22 Sohngen et al. (2010) Wood DVC 0.20-0.60 0.20-0.60 Jenkins et al. (2009) 1 Transportation costs were updated using USDA-NASS agricultural fuel prices from 1999-2007 (USDA-NASS, 2007a,b). 2 DVC is distance variable cost in per ton per mile. 3 DFC is distance fixed cost per ton. 4 Prices not updated. 5 Authors used 2006 wages and March 2008 fuel costs. 6 Authors used 2006 wages and March 2008 fuel costs. 7 Price not updated. 8 Price not updated.

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364 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-6 Storage1 Cited cost Cost per ton Type of Feedstock Type of Cost per ton ($) (2007$) Reference Corn stover 4.44 5.64 Hess et al. (2007) Corn stover Round bales 6.82 6.82 Petrolia (2008) Square bales 12.93 12.93 Corn stover 4.39-21.95 4.39-21.95 Khanna (2008) Stover or Square bales 7.25 7.9 Huang et al. (2009) switchgrass Switchgrass 16.67 16.67 Duffy (2007) Switchgrass 4.14 5.18 Khanna et al. (2008) Switchgrass 4.43-21.68 4.43-21.68 Khanna (2008) 4.40 5.50 Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus 4.64-23.45 4.64-23.45 Khanna (2008) Miscanthus Nonspecific 2 2.18 Mapemba et al. (2008) Hybrid poplar or Keep on stump until 0 0 Huang et al. (2009) Aspen wood needed 1 Storage costs were updated using USDA-NASS Agricultural building material prices from 1999-2007 (USDA- NASS, 2007a,b). Appendix Table M-7 Establishment and Seeding1 Type of Land rent Cited cost per Cost per acre Feedstock Type of Cost included acre ($) (2007$) Reference Switchgrass Yes 200 200 Duffy (2007) Switchgrass No 25.76 46 Perrin et al. (2008) Yes 85.46 153 Switchgrass PV per ton No 7.21/ton 12.6/ton Khanna et al. (2008) 10 yr PV per acre 142.3 249 Amortized 4% over 10 years 17.3 30.25 8% over 10 years 20.7 36.25 Switchgrass Yes 72.5-110 88.5-134 Vadas et al. (2008) Switchgrass Grassland No 134 180 Huang et al. (2009) Cropland 161 216 (includes fertilizer) 45.692 Switchgrass Prorated 45.69 UT (2008) Establishment and Reseeding (10 years) Switchgrass Plots with seeding: 2.5 lb/acre No 150 150 Mooney et al. (2009) 5 lb/acre No 202.6 202.6 7.5 lb/acre No 255 255 10 lb/acre No 306.6 306.6

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365 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-7 Continued Type of Land rent Cited cost per Cost per acre Feedstock Type of Cost included acre ($) (2007$) Reference 12.5 lb/acre No $359 $359 Switchgrass Seed and fertilizer No $171 $171 (2008$) James et al. (2010) cost per acre (no equip/machinery) PV per ton No 2.29/ton 4/ton Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus 20 yr PV per acre 261 457 Amortized 4% over 20 years 19 33.2 8% over 20 years 26.20 45.87 Total No 1,206-2,413 Lewandowski et al. Miscanthus Amortized (2003) 4% over 20 years 88-175 176-350 8% over 20 years 121-242 242-484 Total rhizome cost per No 8,194 8,194 (2008$) James et al. (2010) Miscanthus acre (no equip/labor) Total rhizome cost per No 227.61 227.61 (2008$) James et al. (2010) Miscanthus acre – projected (no equipment/labor) Plugs No 3,000-4,000/ha 1,215-1,619/ac Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus Rhizomes in Illinois No 2,957/ha 1,197/ac Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus Hybrid poplar Total cutting cost per No 242 242 (2008$) James et al. (2010) acre Hybrid poplar Includes nutrients No 35 47 Huang et al. (2009) (cropland) Timber Yellow pine (South 386 386 (2008$) Cubbage et al. (2010) average) Timber Yellow pine (NC) 430 430 (2008$) Cubbage et al. (2010) Timber Douglas fir (NC, OR) 520 520 (2008$) Cubbage et al. (2010) 1 Establishment and Seeding costs were updated using USDA-NASS agricultural fuel and seed prices from 1999- 2007 (USDA-NASS, 2007a,b). 2 Value in 2008$.

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372 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-9 Continued Estimated Yield (tons acre-1) Biomass Type Assumptions Location Reference Switchgrass Cave-in-rock 2.2 Northern Illinois Pyter et al. (2007) 3 year average 5.2 Central Illinois 2.7 Southern Illinois Switchgrass POLYSYS 4.87 Northeast De La Torre Ugarte et al. assumption (2003) 5.84 Appalachian 5.98 Corn Belt 4.8 Lake states 5.49 Southeast 4.30 Southern Plains 3.47 Northern Plains Switchgrass Calibrated values 3.5-6.5 Appalachian Marshall and Sugg (2010) for 2008 5.16-6.4 Corn Belt (assumed 2% 3.8-6.5 Delta states growth following 4.5-6.0 Lake states 2008) 3 Mountain states 4.8-6.0 Northern Plains 3.2-6.2 Northeast 3.5-6.3 Southern Plains 4.4-6.5 Southeast Switchgrass Assumption 4 Southern MI James et al. (2010) Switchgrass Previous Literature 4.46-6.69 Reijnders (2010) Switchgrass Plots – varying seed 3.8-7.9 TN Mooney et al. (2009) and nitrogen Switchgrass One year max – plot 10.2 TN Mooney et al. (2009) Switchgrass Plots 4 IA Lemus et al. (2002) Switchgrass Assumption (prev 3.6 Corn Belt Jiang and Swinton (2008) studies) Switchgrass Simulated 3.8 U.S. Average Chen et al. (2010) (MISCANMOD) Switchgrass Average model 6.8 (3.6-17.8) Midwest Jain et al. (2010) yield (range) Switchgrass Farm-gate yield 3.75-4.2 Midwest Jain et al. (2010) (annualized yield after losses) Switchgrass Average observed 6.6 Midwest Jain et al. (2010) peak yield Wheat straw 1 BRDI (2008)

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373 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-9 Continued Estimated Yield (tons acre-1) Biomass Type Assumptions Location Reference Wheat Straw Estimated 0.27 Average Chen et al. (2010) Simulated 8.9 IL Khanna and Dhungana Miscanthus (2007) 14.5 avg IL Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus 12-17 range 114.58 (20 year PV) Potential 12-18 IL Khanna (2008) Miscanthus Delivered 8.1-8.5 3 year average 9.8 Northern Illinois Pyter et al. (2007) Miscanthus 15.5 Central Illinois 15.8 Southern Illinois 1 year 14.1 Urbana, Illinois Field experiment 5.71 (14 year) EU Christian et al. (2008) Miscanthus 3.43-11.73 (3 year) 1.8-19.6 EU Lewandowski et al. Miscanthus (2003) Projection 13.36 (mean) Heaton et al. (2004b) Miscanthus 10.93-17.81 Peer-reviewed 10 U.S. and EU Heaton et al. (2004a) Miscanthus articles 3 year state average 13.2 IL Heaton et al. (2008) Miscanthus 3 year max state 17 IL Heaton et al. (2008) Miscanthus average Assumption 10 MI James et al. (2010) Miscanthus Peak 7.5-17.2 EU Clifton-Brown et al. Miscanthus Delayed 4.3-11.6 (2004) Autumn yields 4.5-11.15 EU Lewandowski et al. Miscanthus without irrigation (2000) Yield range (high- 0.9-19.6 EU Lewandowski et al. Miscanthus end irrigated) (2000) Modeled 6.2-9.4 EU Stampfl et al. (2007) Miscanthus harvestable yield Above ground 6.6-14.9 Germany Kahle et al. (2001) Miscanthus Mean harvested 5.2 First year average 0.85 EU Clifton-Brown et al. Miscanthus First year max 2.6 (2001) First year min 0.16 Second year average 3.8 Second year max 12 Third year max 18.2 1996 (drought) 3.4 Denmark Vargas et al. (2002) Miscanthus 1997 5.9 continued

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374 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-9 Continued Estimated Yield (tons acre-1) Biomass Type Assumptions Location Reference First year average 0.85 Germany Clifton-Brown and Miscanthus First year max 1.34 Lewandowski (2002) Second year average 2.8 Second year max 4.3 Third year average 7.3 Third year max 11.4 Assumption 9.81 Southern MI James et al. (2010) Miscanthus Previous literature 4.46-5.8 Reijnders (2010) Miscanthus Simulated 11.6 U.S. average Chen et al. (2010) Miscanthus (MISCANMOD) Average model 19 (0-27.7) Midwest Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus yield (range) Farm-gate yield 6.3-8.6 Midwest Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus (annualized yield after losses) Average observed 16.6 Midwest Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus peak yield Hybrid poplar 3.5-5.3 Lake states Huang et al. (2009) Assumption 3.43-4 MN 4 Poplar 10 year average 3.7 Upper MI Miller and Bender (2008) (best growing taxa) Poplar Assumption 5 Southern MI James et al. (2010) Hybrid poplar POLYSYS 3.99 NE De La Torre Ugarte et al. assumption (2003) 3.56 Appalachian 4.63 Corn Belt 4.41 Lake states 4.50 Southeast 3.75 Southern Plains 3.83 Northern Plains 5.73 Pacific Northwest Willow 10 year average 3.4 Upper Michigan Miller and Bender (2008) (best taxa) Willow POLYSYS 4.9 Northeast De La Torre Ugarte et al. assumption (2003) 4.50 Appalachian 4.70 Corn Belt 4.60 Lake states Aspen wood 0.446 (dry) MN Huang et al. (2009) SRWC 5-12 BRDI (2008) Woody biomass Stock 4.6-39 USFS (2003, 2005)

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375 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-9 Continued Estimated Yield (tons acre-1) Biomass Type Assumptions Location Reference Wood residue 2006 average 1.1 Mississippi USDA Forest Service removal rate in data Mississippi (lower bound) 15 m3/hectare/yr 4.3 (2.3 – 4)1 Yellow pine Southern U.S. Cubbage et al. (2010) 12.5 m3/hectare/yr Yellow pine 3.6 (2 – 3.3) North Carolina Cubbage et al. (2010) 14 m3/hectare/yr Douglas fir 4 (3.3) Oregon Cubbage et al. (2010) m3/hectare/yr Douglas fir 18 5.1 (4.25) North Carolina Cubbage et al. (2010) Sorghum Previous literature 16.41 Reijnders (2010) 1 The first value is derived using a general conversion factor of 0.64 dry metric tons per cubic meter (DMT/m3) for softwoods. The yields in parentheses are based on conversion factors provided by engineeringtoolbox.com of 0.35-0.60 DMT/m3 and 0.53 DMT/m3 for Yellow Pine and Douglas Fir, respectively. (Accessed September 15, 2010) http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/wood-density-d_40.html. Appendix Table M-10 Interest Rate Details Rate Reference 8% Brechbill and Tyner (2008a,b), Brechbill et al. (2008) 7.5% Quick (2003) 7.5% Sokhansanj and Turhollow (2002) Establishment and seeding 8% Duffy and Nanhou (2001) Operating expenses 9% Duffy and Nanhou (2001) Real discount rate 4% Popp and Hogan (2007) Farmer’s real opportunity cost of 5% James et al. (2010) machinery Real discount rate (PV calc) 6.5% de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Nominal interest rate 8% Mooney et al. (2009) Real discount rate 5.4% Mooney et al. (2009) Establishment and seeding 4% Jain et al. (2010)

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376 APPENDIX M Appendix Table M-11 Stand Length Crop Length Reference Switchgrass 10 years Brechbill et al. (2008) Switchgrass 10 years Duffy and Nanhou (2001) Switchgrass 12 years Popp and Hogan (2007) Switchgrass 20 years Tiffany et al. (2006) Switchgrass 10 years Khanna (2008) Switchgrass 10 years Khanna et al. (2008) Switchgrass 10 years Khanna and Dhungana (2007) Switchgrass 10+ years Lewandowski et al. (2003) Switchgrass 10+ years Fike et al. (2006) Switchgrass 10 years James et al. (2010) Switchgrass 10 years de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Switchgrass 10 years Mooney et al. (2009) 5 years1 Switchgrass Mooney et al. (2009) Switchgrass 10 years Miller and Bender (2008) Switchgrass 10 years Jain et al. (2010) 20 years Khanna (2008) Miscanthus 20 years Khanna et al. (2008) Miscanthus 20 years Khanna and Dhungana (2007) Miscanthus 20-25 years Lewandowski et al. (2003) Miscanthus 10 years James et al. (2010) Miscanthus 15 years Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus 10 years (sensitivity) Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus Short-rotation poplar 10 years James et al. (2010) Poplar 10 year analysis Miller and Bender (2008) Poplar 6-10 years de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Willow 10-year analysis Miller and Bender (2008) Willow 22 years de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Yellow pine (South U.S.) 30 years Cubbage et al. (2010) Yellow pine (NC) 23 years Cubbage et al. (2010) Douglas fir 45 years Cubbage et al. (2010) 1 Based on the assumption that it will be optimal to replace with improved seed and contracts. Appendix Table M-12 Yield Maturity Rate Type of Feedstock Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Reference Switchgrass 20-35% 60-75% 100% Walsh (2008) Switchgrass No harvest - - Switchgrass 30% 67% 100% Kszos et al. (2002) Switchgrass 0 60% 100% Popp and Hogan (2007) Switchgrass ~33% ~66% 100% McLaughlin and Kszos (2005) Switchgrass Max at 3 years James et al. (2010) Switchgrass 30% 67% 100% de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Switchgrass 14% of 3rd year 59% of 3rd Mooney et al. (2009) year Switchgrass 30-100% 67-100% 100% Jain et al. (2010) 2-5 years for full - - Heaton et al. (2004) Miscanthus Max at 4 years - - Atkinson (2009) Miscanthus 2 years in warm climate - - Clifton-Brown et al. (2001) Miscanthus 3 years in cooler climates Max at 3 years - - James et al. (2010) Miscanthus 0 40-50% 100% Jain et al. (2010) Miscanthus Willow 60% in year 4, 100% after - - de la Torre Ugarte et al. (2003) Timber 5-year establishment period - - Cubbage et al. (2010)

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381 APPENDIX M USDA-NASS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Agricultural Statistics Service). 2007b. Agricultural Prices 2006 Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Agricultural Statistics Service. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service). 2003. A Strategic Assessment of Forest Biomass and Fuel Reduction Treatments in Western States. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service). 2005. A Strategic Assessment of Forest Biomass and Fuel Reduction Treatments in Western States. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service. UT (University of Tennessee). 2009. Guideline Switchgrass Establishment and Annual Production Budgets over Three Year Planning Horizon: Estimated Production Expenses as of July 14, 2009. Knoxville: University of Tennessee. Vadas, P., K. Barnett, and D. Undersander. 2008. Economics and energy of ethanol production from alfalfa, corn, and switchgrass in the Upper Midwest, USA. BioEnergy Research 1(1):44-55. Vargas, L.A., M.N. Andersen, C.R. Jensen, and U. Jørgensen. 2002. Estimation of leaf area index, light intercep- tion and biomass accumulation of Miscanthus sinensis “Goliath” from radiation measurements. Biomass and Bioenergy 22(1):1-14. Vogel, K.P., J.J. Brejda, D.T. Walters, and D.R. Buxton. 2002. Switchgrass biomass production in the Midwest USA. Agronomy Journal 94(3):413-420. Wallace, R., K. Ibsen, A. McAloon, and W. Yee. 2005. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks. Golden, CO: National Renewable En- ergy Laboratory. Walsh, M. 2008. Switchgrass. May 31, 2008. Available online at http://bioweb.sungrant.org/Technical/ Biomass+Resources/Agricultural+Resources/New+Crops/Herbaceous+Crops/Switchgrass/Default.htm. Accessed September 21, 2010. Wright, M.M., and R.C. Brown. 2007. Comparative economics of biorefineries based on the biochemical and ther- mochemical platforms. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 1(1):49-56.

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