Tober, D., W. Duckwitz, and M. Knudson. 2009. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) Biomass Trials. North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Bismarck, ND: U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Tolan, J.S. 2004. Iogen’s demonstration process for producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Pp. 193-208 in Biorefineries—Industrial Processes and Products, B. Kamm, P.R. Gruber and M. Kamm, eds. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.

Tuskan, G.A., S. DiFazio, S. Jansson, J. Bohlmann, I. Grigoriev, U. Hellsten, N. Putnam, S. Ralph, S. Rombauts, A. Salamov, J. Schein, L. Sterck, A. Aerts, R.R. Bhalerao, R.P. Bhalerao, D. Blaudez, W. Boerjan, A. Brun, A. Brunner, V. Busov, M. Campbell, J. Carlson, M. Chalot, J. Chapman, G.L. Chen, D. Cooper, P.M. Coutinho, J. Couturier, S. Covert, Q. Cronk, R. Cunningham, J. Davis, S. Degroeve, A. Dejardin, C. Depamphilis, J. Detter, B. Dirks, I. Dubchak, S. Duplessis, J. Ehlting, B. Ellis, K. Gendler, D. Goodstein, M. Gribskov, J. Grimwood, A. Groover, L. Gunter, B. Hamberger, B. Heinze, Y. Helariutta, B. Henrissat, D. Holligan, R. Holt, W. Huang, N. Islam-Faridi, S. Jones, M. Jones-Rhoades, R. Jorgensen, C. Joshi, J. Kangasjarvi, J. Karlsson, C. Kelleher, R. Kirkpatrick, M. Kirst, A. Kohler, U. Kalluri, F. Larimer, J. Leebens-Mack, J.C. Leple, P. Locascio, Y. Lou, S. Lucas, F. Martin, B. Montanini, C. Napoli, D.R. Nelson, C. Nelson, K. Nieminen, O. Nilsson, V. Pereda, G. Peter, R. Philippe, G. Pilate, A. Poliakov, J. Razumovskaya, P. Richardson, C. Rinaldi, K. Ritland, P. Rouze, D. Ryaboy, J. Schmutz, J. Schrader, B. Segerman, H. Shin, A. Siddiqui, F. Sterky, A. Terry, C.J. Tsai, E. Uberbacher, P. Unneberg, J. Vahala, K. Wall, S. Wessler, G. Yang, T. Yin, C. Douglas, M. Marra, G. Sandberg, Y. Van de Peer, and D. Rokhsar. 2006. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science 313(5793):1596-1604.

Urbanchuk, J. 2010. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2010. USDA Agricultural Projections to 2019. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2011. USDA Agricultural Projections to 2020. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

USDA-AMS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Marketing Service). 2007. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder: Expansion of U.S. Corn-Based Ethanol from the Agricultural Transportation Perspective. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

USDA-ERS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service). 2010. Farm program acres. Available online at Accessed October 15, 2010.

USDA-NASS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Agricultural Statistics Service). 2010. Data and statistics: Quick stats. Available online at Accessed June 24, 2011.

USDA-NRCS (U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service). 2002. Plant Factsheet: Little Bluestem. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service -National Plant Materials Center.

Volk, T.A., T. Verwijst, P.J. Tharakan, L.P. Abrahamson, and E.H. White. 2004. Growing fuel: A sustainability assessment of willow biomass crops. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(8):411-418.

Volk, T.A., L.P. Abrahamson, C.A. Nowak, L.B. Smart, P.J. Tharakan, and E.H. White. 2006. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation. Biomass & Bioenergy 30(8-9):715-727.

Walsh, M., D.G. De La Torre Uguarte, H. Shapouri, and S.P. Slinsky. 2003. Bioenergy crop production in the United States. Environmental and Resource Economics 24(3):313-333.

Weimer, P.J., and T.L. Springer. 2007. Fermentability of eastern gamagrass, big bluestem and sand bluestem grown across a wide variety of environments. Bioresource Technology 98(8):1615-1621.

Wilhelm, W.W., J.M.E. Johnson, D.L. Karlen, and D.T. Lightle. 2007. Corn stover to sustain soil organic carbon further constrains biomass supply. Agronomy Journal 99(6):1665-1667.

Wright, L., and A. Turhollow. 2010. Switchgrass selection as a “model” bioenergy crop: A history of the process. Biomass & Bioenergy 34(6):851-868.

Wullschleger, S.D., E.B. Davis, M.E. Borsuk, C.A. Gunderson, and L.R. Lynd. 2010. Biomass production in switchgrass across the United States: Database description and determinants of yield. Agronomy Journal 102(4):1158-1168.

Yan, W., T.C. Acharjee, C.J. Coronella, and V.R. Vasquez. 2009. Thermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 28(3):435-440.

Yang, B., and C. Wyman. 2007. Pretreatment: The key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining 2:26-40.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement