5-4    Life-cycle emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfure oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and primary particulate matter2.5 (PM2.5) from gasoline, dry-mill corn-grain ethanol produced using natural gas at the biorefinery, cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, and cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass

5-5    Human health damage costs (dollars per gallon of gasoline equivalent) of life-cycle air-quality impacts of gasoline, corn-grain ethanol, and cellulosic ethanol

5-6    Model estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus yield from runoff in the Mississippi River Basin for 1992-2002

5-7    Groundwater drawdown in the surficial aquifer (High Plains Aquifer) in Nebraska as a result of years of agricultural and municipal withdrawals

5-8    U.S. irrigation corn for grain

5-9    Total water withdrawals (from agriculture, municipalities, and industry) in the United States by county in 2000

5-10  Ethanol biorefineries superimposed on a map of the major bedrock aquifers and their water usage rates

5-11  Conceptual framework for comparing tradeoffs of ecosystem services under different land uses

5-12  Average 2004-2006  saturated thickness for the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas

5-13  Usable lifetime of the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas estimated on the basis of groundwater trends from 1996 to 2006 and the minimum saturated requirements to support well yields of 400 gallons per minute under a scenario of 90 days of pumping with wells on ¼ sections

BOXES

S-1    Definitions of Renewable Fuels in RFS2

1-1    Structure of the Report

4-1    Calculating Willingness to Pay (WTP)

4-2    Calculating Willingness to Accept (WTA)

4-3    Gap in Forest Residue Demand and Supply

4-4    Biomass Crop Assistance Program

4-5    State and Federal Subsidy Expenditures on Energy in Texas

4-6    Comparison of Southern Pine and Hybrid Poplar in Producing Timber and Biomass on Similar Sites

5-1    Illustration of How Different Approaches of Life-Cycle Assessment are Used for Different Purposes

5-2    Methodological Assumptions Affecting GHG LCA Analyses

5-3    Sustainability Concerns Associated with Using Forest Resources to Meet RFS2



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