ecosystem services — The wide array of conditions and processes through which ecosystems, and their biodiversity, confer benefits on humanity; these conditions and processes include the production of goods, life-support functions, life-fulfilling conditions, and preservation of options. (EB, p. 353)

evolution — The morphological or genetic change in species over time. Small changes that do not lead to reproductive isolation among members of a group are referred to as microevolution. Speciation, or the generation of new species, is generally referred to as macroevolution. (EB, p. 393)

ex situ — Literally, away from the site or location; in this context, referring to conservation efforts elsewhere than the natural habitat; for example, in botanical gardens. (EB, p. 645)

functional diversity The range and value of the species and organismal traits that influence ecosystem functioning. (EB, p. 109)

invasive species — Introduced species that establish self-maintaining populations and spread, with and without human assistance, into new areas where they frustrate human intentions in production and natural landscapes. (EB, p. 501)

mitigation — The implementation of measures designed to avoid, reduce or eliminate the undesirable effects of a proposed action on the environment. (CEQ Regulations for Implementing the National Environmental Protection Act, Sec. 1508.20)

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