become increasingly relevant with continued warming. It is the deep-time record that has revealed the thresholds and tipping points in the climate system that have led to past abrupt climate change, including amplified warming, substantial changes in continental hydroclimate, catastrophic ice sheet collapse, and greatly accelerated sea level rise. Also, it is uniquely the deep-time record that has archived the full temporal range of climate change impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems, including ecological tipping points. An integrated research program—a deep-time climate research agenda—to provide a considerably improved understanding of the processes and characteristics over the full range of Earth’s potential climate states offers great promise for informing individuals, communities, and public policy.

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