ranging between 300 and 50 million years ago, and on understanding climate feedback processes in Earth’s climate system. Dr. Kiehl has served on the National Research Council Committee on Global Change Research and Climate Research Committee, and he was a contributing author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. He received his Ph.D. in atmospheric science from the State University of New York, Albany.

Lee R. Kump is a professor of geosciences at the Pennsylvania State University and is also currently associate director of the Earth System Evolution Program at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. Dr. Kump’s research focuses on the long-term evolution of the oceans and atmosphere and the dynamic coupling between global climate and biogeochemical cycles. He is a fellow of the Geological Society of America and the Geological Society of London. Dr. Kump received his Ph.D. in marine sciences from the University of South Florida.

Richard D. Norris is professor of paleobiology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Norris’s research interests focus on the use of biogeochemical and paleoceanographic data to understand Earth-ocean-biosphere linkages, with particular emphasis on Cretaceous and Paleogene warm climates and the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum. Dr. Norris received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, and he is a fellow of the Geological Society of America.

A. Christina Ravelo is a professor of ocean sciences in the Department of Ocean Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC). She is also director of the Santa Cruz branch of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at UCSC. Previously, she was chair of the U.S. Science Advisory Committee for Scientific Ocean Drilling and director of the IGPP’s Center for the Dynamics and Evolution of the Land-Sea Interface. Dr. Ravelo’s research interests are focused on understanding Cenozoic paleoclimates and paleoceanography using stable isotope geochemistry. She received her Ph.D. in geological sciences from Columbia University.

Karl K. Turekian (NAS) is the Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. Dr. Turekian’s research focuses on the use of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides for deciphering the environmental history of Earth. He received his Ph.D. in geochemistry from Columbia University and has served on the faculty at Yale since 1956. Dr. Turekian is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Geological Society of America.



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