and Ecology and the Institute for Research on Poverty. He has worked on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study since 1969 and directed it since 1980. His current research interests include trends in educational progression and social mobility in the United States among racial and ethnic groups, the uses of educational assessment as a policy tool, the effects of families on social and economic inequality, changes in socioeconomic standing, health, and well-being across the life course. He has contributed to statistical methods for discrete multivariate analysis and structural equation models and to methods for the measurement of social and economic standing. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Statistical Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. At the NRC, he has served on the Committee on National Statistics, the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, the Board on Testing and Assessment and numerous NRC research panels. He recently served on the secretary of education’s task force on the measurement of high school dropout rates. He has a B.A. in economics from the University of Chicago and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Michigan.

Beatrice F. Birman is a managing research scientist in the Education, Human Development and Workforce Program of the American Institutes for Research. Previously, she served as assistant director of education and employment issues for the U.S. Government Accountability Office, held a number of positions in the U.S. Department of Education, and taught program evaluation and research methods at George Washington University and Stanford University, respectively. The major focus of her work is evaluation of education programs, with experience in federal education policy, programs for students placed at risk, school reform, and teachers’ professional development. She has conducted national evaluations of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I and the Eisenhower Professional Development Program (for mathematics and science teachers), has studied district and school reform efforts aimed at reducing gaps in student outcomes, and has evaluated policy initiatives related to charter schools and the uses of educational technologies. She holds an M.A. in counseling psychology, an M.A. in sociology, and a Ph.D. in the sociology of education, all from Stanford University.

Carl A. Cohn is a clinical professor and codirector of the Urban Leadership Program at Claremont Graduate University and president of Urban School Imagineers, an educational consulting firm. Previously he served as superintendent of schools in the San Diego Unified School District, and he earlier served in that position for the Long Beach Unified School District,

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