2. On May 25, 2011, following the completion of this report, NASA selected the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample-return spacecraft as the third New Frontiers mission. Launch is scheduled for 2016.

3. On May 25, 2011, following the completion of this report, NASA selected the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample-return spacecraft as the third New Frontiers mission. Launch is scheduled for 2016.

4. This is the cost of MAX-C only, not the cost of the full Mars Sample Return campaign. Also, the estimate is for the MAX-C mission as currently conceived; in the text below, the committee recommends reductions in scope to keep the cost below $2.5 billion FY2015.

5. This is the version without a solar-electric propulsion stage.

6. National Research Council. 2010. Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

7. The issue of instrument development problems is a subtler one, given that instrument overruns alone may represent a small fraction of mission cost but can have profound effects on project schedules and induce additional costs beyond those associated with the instrument. This is likely to be a significant problem in the next decade in the wake of the dramatic reductions in technology development spending this past decade that have resulted in fewer mid- to high-TRL instruments being available for flight.

8. Executive Office of the President. Review of U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee. 2009. Seeking a Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of a Great Nation. Washington, D.C.

9. National Research Council and European Science Foundation. 1998. U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 102-103.

10. For additional details concerning Gemini and recommendations for its future, see, for example, National Research Council, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010, pp. 177-179.

11. National Research Council. 2010. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 34.

12. For additional information about and recommendations concerning the LSST, see, for example, National Research Council, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010, pp. 224-225.



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