RECOMMENDATION 8-1. DoD should continue to monitor the literature on the effects of nutrients, dietary supplements, and diets on TBI, particularly those reviewed in this report but also others that may emerge as potentially effective in the future. For example, although the evidence was not sufficiently compelling to recommend that research be conducted on BCAAs, DoD should monitor the scientific literature for relevant research.
Aquilani, R., P. Iadarola, A. Contardi, M. Boselli, M. Verri, O. Pastoris, F. Boschi, P. Arcidiaco, and S. Viglio. 2005. Branched-chain amino acids enhance the cognitive recovery of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 86(9):1729–1735.
Aquilani, R., M. Boselli, F. Boschi, S. Viglio, P. Iadarola, M. Dossena, O. Pastoris, and M. Verri. 2008. Branched-chain amino acids may improve recovery from a vegetative or minimally conscious state in patients with traumatic brain injury: A pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89(9):1642–1647.
Cole, J. T., C. M. Mitala, S. Kundu, A. Verma, J. A. Elkind, I. Nissim, and A. S. Cohen. 2010. Dietary branched chain amino acids ameliorate injury-induced cognitive impairment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(1):366–371.
Contrusciere, V., S. Paradisi, A. Matteucci, and F. Malchiodi-Albedi. 2010. Branched-chain amino acids induce neurotoxicity in rat cortical cultures. Neurotoxicity Research 17:392–397.
De Bandt, J.-P., and L. Cynober. 2006. Therapeutic use of branched-chain amino acids in burn, trauma and sepsis. Journal of Nutrition 136:308S–313S.
Dufour, F., K. A. Nalecz, M. J. Nalecz, and A. Nehlig. 1999. Modulation of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure activity by branched-chain amino acids and [alpha]-ketoisocaproate. Brain Research 815(2):400–404.
Evangeliou, A., M. Spilioti, V. Doulioglou, P. Kalaidopoulou, A. Ilias, A. Skarpalezou, I. Katsanika, S. Kalamitsou, K. Vasilaki, I. Chatziioanidis, K. Garganis, E. Pavlou, S. Varlamis, and N. Nikolaidis. 2009. Branched chain amino acids as adjunctive therapy to ketogenic diet in epilepsy: Pilot study and hypothesis. Journal of Child Neurology 24(10):1268–1272.
Fernstrom, J. D. 2005. Branched-chain amino acids and brain function. Journal of Nutrition 135(6 Suppl.): 1539S–1546S.
Garseth, M., L. R. White, and J. Aasly. 2001. Little change in cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in subtypes of multiple sclerosis compared with acute polyradiculoneuropathy. Neurochemistry International 39(2):111–115.
Gijsman, H. J., A. Scarna, C. J. Harmer, S. F. B. McTavish, J. Odontiadis, P. J. Cowen, and G. M. Goodwin. 2002. A dose-finding study on the effects of branch chain amino acids on surrogate markers of brain dopamine function. Psychopharmacology 160(2):192–197.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM. 2006. Nutrient composition of rations for short-term, high-intensity combat operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Ishikawa, Y., H. Yoshida, Y. Mamada, N. Taniai, S. Matsumoto, K. Bando, Y. Mizuguchi, D. Kakinuma, T. Kanda, and T. Tajiri. 2010. Prospective randomized controlled study of short-term perioperative oral nutrition with branched chain amino acids in patients undergoing liver surgery. Hepato-Gastroenterology 57(99–100):583–590.
Lieberman, H. R., T. B. Stavinoha, S. M. McGraw, A. White, L. S. Hadden, and B. P. Marriott. 2010. Use of dietary supplements among active-duty U.S. Army soldiers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(4):985–995.
Matthews, D. E. 2005. Observations of branched-chain amino acid administration in humans. Journal of Nutrition 135(6 Suppl.):1580S–1584S.
Ott, L. G., J. J. Schmidt, A. B. Young, D. L. Twyman, R. P. Rapp, P. A. Tibbs, R. J. Dempsey, and C. J. McClain. 1988. Comparison of administration of two standard intravenous amino acid formulas to severely brain-injured patients. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 22(10):763–768.
Skeie, B., A. J. Petersen, T. Manner, J. Askanazi, and P. A. Steen. 1994. Effects of valine, leucine, isoleucine, and a balanced amino acid solution on the seizure threshold to picrotoxin in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 48(1):101–103.
Wagenmakers, A. J. M. 1999. Amino acid supplements to improve athletic performance. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2:539–544.
Yudkoff, M., Y. Daikhin, I. Nissim, O. Horyn, B. Lyhovyy, A. Lazarow, and N. I. 2005. Brain amino acid requirements and toxicity: The example of leucine. Journal of Nutrition 135(6 Suppl.):1531S–1538S.