Holmes, G. L., Y. Yang, Z. Liu, J. M. Cermak, M. R. Sarkisian, C. E. Stafstrom, J. C. Neill, and J. K. Blusztajn. 2002. Seizure-induced memory impairment is reduced by choline supplementation before or after status epilepticus. Epilepsy Research 48(1–2):3–13.

Ikeda, Y., and D. M. Long. 1990. The molecular-basis of brain injury and brain edema—the role of oxygen free-radicals. Neurosurgery 27(1):1–11.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1998. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jensen, H. H., S. P. Batres-Marquez, A. Carriquiry, and K. L. Schalinske. 2007. Choline in the diets of the U.S. population: NHANES, 2003–2004. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 21:lb219.

Johnson, A. R., C. N. Craciunescu, Z. Guo, Y. W. Teng, R. J. Thresher, J. K. Blusztajn, and S. H. Zeisel. 2010. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 24(8):2752–2761.

Kennedy, J. E., P. F. Clement, and G. Curtiss. 2003. WAIS-III processing speed index scores after TBI: The influence of working memory, psychomotor speed and perceptual processing. Clinical Neuropsychologist 17(3):303–307.

Kline, A. E., J. L. Massucci, X. C. Ma, R. D. Zafonte, and C. E. Dixon. 2004. Bromocriptine reduces lipid peroxidation and enhances spatial learning and hippocampal neuron survival in a rodent model of focal brain trauma. Journal of Neurotrauma 21(12):1712–1722.

Kontos, C. D., E. P. Wei, J. I. Williams, H. A. Kontos, and J. T. Povlishock. 1992. Cytochemical detection of superoxide in cerebral inflammation and ischemia invivo. American Journal of Physiology 263(4):H1234–H1242.

Krupinski, J., I. Ferrer, M. Barrachina, J. J. Secades, J. Mercadal, and R. Lozano. 2002. CDP-choline reduces procaspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Neuropharmacology 42(6):846–854.

Leon-Carrion, J., J. M. Dominguez-Roldan, F. Murillo-Cabezas, M. D. Dominguez-Morales, and M. A. Munoz-Sanchez. 2000. The role of citicholine in neuropsychological training after traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation 14(1):33–40.

Levin, H. S. 1991. Treatment of postconcussional symptoms with CDP-choline. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 103(Suppl.):S39–S42.

Li, Z., and D. E. Vance. 2008. Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis. Journal of Lipid Research 49(6):1187–1194.

Maldonado, V., J. B. Perez, and J. Escario. 1991. Effects of CDP-choline on the recovery of patients with head injury. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 103(Suppl.):S15–18.

Mir, C., J. Clotet, R. Aledo, N. Durany, J. Argemi, R. Lozano, J. Cervos-Navarro, and N. Casals. 2003. CDP-choline prevents glutamate-mediated cell death in cerebellar granule neurons. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 20(1):53–59.

Penry, J. T., and M. M. Manore. 2008. Choline: An important micronutrient for maximal endurance-exercise performance? International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 18(2):191–203.

Rao, A. M., J. F. Hatcher, and R. J. Dempsey. 2001. Does CDP-choline modulate phospholipase activities after transient forebrain ischemia? Brain Research 893(1–2):268–272.

Resseguie, M., J. Song, M. D. Niculescu, K. A. da Costa, T. A. Randall, and S. H. Zeisel. 2007. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 21(10):2622–2632.

Resseguie, M. E., K. A. da Costa, J. A. Galanko, M. Patel, I. J. Davis, and S. H. Zeisel. 2011. Aberrant estrogen regulation of PEMT results in choline deficiency-associated liver dysfunction. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 286(2):1649–1658.

Saver, J. L. 2008. Citicoline: Update on a promising and widely available agent for neuroprotection and neurorepair. Reviews in Neurological Diseases 5(4):167–177.

Saver, J. L., C. S. Kidwell, M. C. Leary, B. Ovbiagele, M. F. Tremwel, M. Eckstein, K. N. Ferguson, K. J. Gough, J. N. Llanes, E. M. Eraklis, R. Masamed, and S. Starkman. 2002. Results of the field administration of stroke treatment—Magnesium (FAST-MAG) pilot trial: A study of prehospital neuroprotective therapy. Stroke 33(1):66.

Secades, J. J., and G. Frontera. 1995. CDP-choline—Pharmacological and clinical review. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 17(Suppl. B):1–54.

Tazaki, Y., F. Sakai, E. Otomo, T. Kutsuzawa, M. Kameyama, T. Omae, M. Fujishima, and A. Sakuma. 1988. Treatment of acute cerebral infarction with a choline precursor in a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study. Stroke 19(2):211–216.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement