Fleet, J. C., and K. D. Cashman. 2001. Magnesium. In Present knowledge in nutrition. 8th ed., edited by R. A. Bowman and R. M. Russell. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute. Pp. 292–301.

Fromm, L., D. L. Heath, R. Vink, and A. J. Nimmo. 2004. Magnesium attenuates post-traumatic depression/anxiety following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(5):529S–533S.

Ghabriel, M. N., A. Thomas, and R. Vink. 2006. Magnesium restores altered aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity following traumatic brain injury to a pre-injury state. Acta Neurochirurgica—Supplement 96:402–406.

Gorelick, P. B., and S. Ruland. 2004. IMAGES and FAST-MAG: Magnesium for acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurology 3(6):330.

Heath, D. L., and R. Vink. 1998. Blood-free magnesium concentration declines following graded experimental traumatic brain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 58(2):161–166.

Heath, D. L., and R. Vink. 1999a. Improved motor outcome in response to magnesium therapy received up to 24 hours after traumatic diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. Journal of Neurosurgery 90(3):504–509.

Heath, D. L., and R. Vink. 1999b. Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 288(3):1311–1316.

Heath, D. L., and R. Vink. 2001. Subdural hematoma following traumatic brain injury causes a secondary decline in brain free magnesium concentration. Journal of Neurotrauma 18(4):465–469.

Hoane, M. R. 2007. Assessment of cognitive function following magnesium therapy in the traumatically injured brain. Magnesium Research 20(4):229–236.

Hoane, M. R., and T. M. Barth. 2002. The window of opportunity for administration of magnesium therapy following focal brain injury is 24 h but is task dependent in the rat. Physiology and Behavior 76(2):271–280.

Hoane, M. R., S. L. Irish, B. B. Marks, and T. M. Barth. 1998. Preoperative regimens of magnesium facilitate recovery of function and prevent subcortical atrophy following lesions of the rat sensorimotor cortex. Brain Research Bulletin 45(1):45–51.

Hoane, M. R., A. A. Knotts, S. L. Akstulewicz, M. Aquilano, and L. W. Means. 2003. The behavioral effects of magnesium therapy on recovery of function following bilateral anterior medial cortex lesions in the rat. Brain Research Bulletin 60(1–2):105–114.

IMAGES (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke) Study Investigators. 2004. Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): Randomised controlled trial. Lancet 363(9407):439–445.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2006. Mineral requirements for military personnel: Levels needed for cognitive and physical performance during garrison training. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Iso, H., M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson, K. Rexrode, C. H. Hennekens, G. A. Colditz, F. E. Speizer, and W. C. Willett. 1999. Prospective study of calcium, potassium, and magnesium intake and risk of stroke in women. Stroke 30(9):1772–1779.

Jorge, R. E., and S. E. Starkstein. 2005. Pathophysiologic aspects of major depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 20(6):475–487.

Kerz, T., A. Victor, C. Beyer, I. Trapp, F. Heid, and R. Reisch. 2008. A case control study of statin and magnesium administration in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and mortality. Neurological Research 30(9):893–897.

Kidwell, C. S., K. R. Lees, K. W. Muir, C. Chen, S. M. Davis, D. A. De Silva, C. J. Weir, S. Starkman, J. R. Alger, and J. L. Saver. 2009. Results of the MRI substudy of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial. Stroke 40(5):1704–1709.

Lampl, Y., R. Gilad, D. Geva, Y. Eshel, and M. Sadeh. 2001. Intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate in acute stroke: A randomized double-blind study. Clinical Neuropharmacology 24(1):11–15.

Larsson, S. C., M. J. Virtanen, M. Mars, S. Mannisto, P. Pietinen, D. Albanes, and J. Virtamo. 2008. Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers. Archives of Internal Medicine 168(5):459–465.

McIntosh, T. K., A. I. Faden, I. Yamakami, and R. Vink. 1988. Magnesium deficiency exacerbates and pretreatment improves outcome following traumatic brain injury in rats: 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and behavioral studies. Journal of Neurotrauma 5(1):17–31.

McIntosh, T. K., R. Vink, I. Yamakami, and A. I. Faden. 1989. Magnesium protects against neurological deficit after brain injury. Brain Research 482(2):252–260.

McKee, J. A., R. P. Brewer, G. E. Macy, C. O. Borel, J. D. Reynolds, and D. S. Warner. 2005a. Magnesium neuro-protection is limited in humans with acute brain injury. Neurocritical Care 2(3):342–351.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement