McKee, J. A., R. P. Brewer, G. E. Macy, B. Phillips-Bute, K. A. Campbell, C. O. Borel, J. D. Reynolds, and D. S. Warner. 2005b. Analysis of the brain bioavailability of peripherally administered magnesium sulfate: A study in humans with acute brain injury undergoing prolonged induced hypermagnesemia. Critical Care Medicine 33(3):661–666.

Meloni, B. P., H. Zhu, and N. W. Knuckey. 2006. Is magnesium neuroprotective following global and focal cerebral ischaemia? A review of published studies. Magnesium Research 19(2):123–137.

Meloni, B. P., K. Campbell, H. D. Zhu, and N. W. Knuckey. 2009. In search of clinical neuroprotection after brain ischemia the case for mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) and magnesium. Stroke 40(6):2236–2240.

Natale, J. E., A. M. Guerguerian, J. G. Joseph, R. McCarter, C. Shao, B. Slomine, J. Christensen, M. V. Johnston, and D. H. Shaffner. 2007. Pilot study to determine the hemodynamic safety and feasibility of magnesium sulfate infusion in children with severe traumatic brain injury. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 8(1):1–9.

Park, C. O., and D. K. Hyun. 2004. Apoptotic change in response to magnesium therapy after moderate diffuse axonal injury in rats. Yonsei Medical Journal 45(5):908–916.

Saatman, K. E., F. M. Bareyre, M. S. Grady, and T. K. McIntosh. 2001. Acute cytoskeletal alterations and cell death induced by experimental brain injury are attenuated by magnesium treatment and exacerbated by magnesium deficiency. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 60(2):183–194.

Saver, J. L., C. Kidwell, M. Eckstein, S. Starkman, and F.-M. P. T. Investigators. 2004. Prehospital neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke—results of the Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) pilot trial. Stroke 35(5):E106–E108.

Schmid-Elsaesser, R., M. Kunz, S. Zausinger, S. Prueckner, J. Briegel, and H.-J. Steiger. 2006. Intravenous magnesium versus nimodipine in the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A randomized study. Neurosurgery 58(6):1054–1065; discussion 1054–1065.

Sen, A. P., and A. Gulati. 2010. Use of magnesium in traumatic brain injury. Neurotherapeutics 7(1):91–99.

Shils, M. E. 1999. Magnesium. In Modern nutrition in health and disease. 9th ed., edited by M. E. Shils, J. A. Olson, M. Shike and A. C. Ross. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 169–192.

Song, Y., J. E. Manson, N. R. Cook, C. M. Albert, J. E. Buring, and S. Liu. 2005. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. American Journal of Cardiology 96(8):1135–1141.

Stippler, M., M. R. Fischer, A. M. Puccio, S. R. Wisniewski, E. B. Carson-Walter, C. E. Dixon, and K. A. Walter. 2007. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid magnesium in severe traumatic brain injury outcome. Journal of Neurotrauma 24(8):1347–1354.

Temkin, N. R., G. D. Anderson, H. R. Winn, R. G. Ellenbogen, G. W. Britz, J. Schuster, T. Lucas, D. W. Newell, P. N. Mansfield, J. E. Machamer, J. Barber, and S. S. Dikmen. 2007. Magnesium sulfate for neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurology 6(1):29–38.

Turner, R. J., K. W. Dasilva, C. O’Connor, C. van den Heuvel, and R. Vink. 2004. Magnesium gluconate offers no more protection than magnesium sulphate following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(5):541S–544S.

Van de Water, J. M. W., W. M. Van den Bergh, R. G. Hoff, A. Algra, and G. J. E. Rinkel. 2007. Hypocalcaemia may reduce the beneficial effect of magnesium treatment in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Magnesium Research 20(2):130–135.

van den Bergh, W. M., J. M. W. van de Water, R. G. Hoff, A. Algra, and G. J. E. Rinkel. 2008. Calcium homeostasis during magnesium treatment in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocritical Care 8(3):413–417.

Vink, R., and T. K. McIntosh. 1990. Pharmacological and physiological effects of magnesium on experimental traumatic brain injury. Magnesium Research 3(3):163–169.

Vink, R., T. K. McIntosh, P. Demediuk, M. W. Weiner, and A. I. Faden. 1988. Decline in intracellular free Mg2+ is associated with irreversible tissue injury after brain trauma. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(2):757–761.

Vink, R., C. A. O’Connor, A. J. Nimmo, and D. L. Heath. 2003. Magnesium attenuates persistent functional deficits following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. Neuroscience Letters 336(1):41–44.

Wong, G. K. C., C. W. K. Lam, M. T. V. Chan, T. Gin, and W. S. Poon. 2009. The effect of hypermagnesemic treatment on cerebrospinal fluid magnesium level in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnesium Research 22(2):60–65.

Zhu, H. D., B. P. Meloni, S. R. Moore, B. T. Majda, and N. W. Knuckey. 2004. Intravenous administration of magnesium is only neuroprotective following transient global ischemia when present with post-ischemic mild hypothermia. Brain Research 1014(1–2):53–60.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement